1. 8.5.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/sqlite/Connection.php Connection
  2. 8.5.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Connection.php Connection
  3. 8.5.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/mysql/Connection.php Connection
  4. 8.5.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/pgsql/Connection.php Connection
  5. 8.0.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/sqlite/Connection.php Connection
  6. 8.0.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Connection.php Connection
  7. 8.0.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/mysql/Connection.php Connection
  8. 8.0.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/pgsql/Connection.php Connection
  9. 8.1.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/sqlite/Connection.php Connection
  10. 8.1.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/mysql/Connection.php Connection
  11. 8.1.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/pgsql/Connection.php Connection
  12. 8.1.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Connection.php Connection
  13. 8.2.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/sqlite/Connection.php Connection
  14. 8.2.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Connection.php Connection
  15. 8.2.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/pgsql/Connection.php Connection
  16. 8.2.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/mysql/Connection.php Connection
  17. 8.3.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/mysql/Connection.php Connection
  18. 8.3.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Connection.php Connection
  19. 8.3.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/sqlite/Connection.php Connection
  20. 8.3.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/pgsql/Connection.php Connection
  21. 8.4.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Connection.php Connection
  22. 8.4.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/mysql/Connection.php Connection
  23. 8.4.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/pgsql/Connection.php Connection
  24. 8.4.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/sqlite/Connection.php Connection
  25. 8.6.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/sqlite/Connection.php Connection
  26. 8.6.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/pgsql/Connection.php Connection
  27. 8.6.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/mysql/Connection.php Connection
  28. 8.6.x core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Connection.php Connection

PostgreSQL implementation of \Drupal\Core\Database\Connection.


Expanded class hierarchy of Connection

Related topics

1 file declares its use of Connection
PostgresqlConnectionTest.php in core/tests/Drupal/Tests/Core/Database/Driver/pgsql/PostgresqlConnectionTest.php
1 string reference to 'Connection'
StreamHandler::createStream in vendor/guzzlehttp/guzzle/src/Handler/StreamHandler.php


core/lib/Drupal/Core/Database/Driver/pgsql/Connection.php, line 18


View source
class Connection extends DatabaseConnection {

   * The name by which to obtain a lock for retrieve the next insert id.

   * Error code for "Unknown database" error.

   * Error code for "Connection failure" errors.
   * Technically this is an internal error code that will only be shown in the
   * PDOException message. It will need to get extracted.
  const CONNECTION_FAILURE = '08006';

   * A map of condition operators to PostgreSQL operators.
   * In PostgreSQL, 'LIKE' is case-sensitive. ILKE should be used for
   * case-insensitive statements.
  protected static $postgresqlConditionOperatorMap = [
    'LIKE' => [
      'operator' => 'ILIKE',
    'LIKE BINARY' => [
      'operator' => 'LIKE',
    'NOT LIKE' => [
      'operator' => 'NOT ILIKE',
    'REGEXP' => [
      'operator' => '~*',

   * The list of PostgreSQL reserved key words.
   * @see http://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.4/static/sql-keywords-appendix.html
  protected $postgresqlReservedKeyWords = [

   * Constructs a connection object.
  public function __construct(\PDO $connection, array $connection_options) {
    parent::__construct($connection, $connection_options);

    // This driver defaults to transaction support, except if explicitly passed FALSE.
    $this->transactionSupport = !isset($connection_options['transactions']) || $connection_options['transactions'] !== FALSE;

    // Transactional DDL is always available in PostgreSQL,
    // but we'll only enable it if standard transactions are.
    $this->transactionalDDLSupport = $this->transactionSupport;
    $this->connectionOptions = $connection_options;

    // Force PostgreSQL to use the UTF-8 character set by default.
      ->exec("SET NAMES 'UTF8'");

    // Execute PostgreSQL init_commands.
    if (isset($connection_options['init_commands'])) {
        ->exec(implode('; ', $connection_options['init_commands']));

   * {@inheritdoc}
  public static function open(array &$connection_options = []) {

    // Default to TCP connection on port 5432.
    if (empty($connection_options['port'])) {
      $connection_options['port'] = 5432;

    // PostgreSQL in trust mode doesn't require a password to be supplied.
    if (empty($connection_options['password'])) {
      $connection_options['password'] = NULL;
    else {
      $connection_options['password'] = str_replace('\\', '\\\\', $connection_options['password']);
    $connection_options['database'] = !empty($connection_options['database']) ? $connection_options['database'] : 'template1';
    $dsn = 'pgsql:host=' . $connection_options['host'] . ' dbname=' . $connection_options['database'] . ' port=' . $connection_options['port'];

    // Allow PDO options to be overridden.
    $connection_options += [
      'pdo' => [],
    $connection_options['pdo'] += [
      // Prepared statements are most effective for performance when queries
      // are recycled (used several times). However, if they are not re-used,
      // prepared statements become inefficient. Since most of Drupal's
      // prepared queries are not re-used, it should be faster to emulate
      // the preparation than to actually ready statements for re-use. If in
      // doubt, reset to FALSE and measure performance.
      // Convert numeric values to strings when fetching.
    try {
      $pdo = new \PDO($dsn, $connection_options['username'], $connection_options['password'], $connection_options['pdo']);
    } catch (\PDOException $e) {
      if (static::getSQLState($e) == static::CONNECTION_FAILURE) {
        if (strpos($e
          ->getMessage(), 'password authentication failed for user') !== FALSE) {
          throw new DatabaseAccessDeniedException($e
            ->getMessage(), $e
            ->getCode(), $e);
        elseif (strpos($e
          ->getMessage(), 'database') !== FALSE && strpos($e
          ->getMessage(), 'does not exist') !== FALSE) {
          throw new DatabaseNotFoundException($e
            ->getMessage(), $e
            ->getCode(), $e);
      throw $e;
    return $pdo;

   * {@inheritdoc}
  public function query($query, array $args = [], $options = []) {
    $options += $this

    // The PDO PostgreSQL driver has a bug which doesn't type cast booleans
    // correctly when parameters are bound using associative arrays.
    // @see http://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=48383
    foreach ($args as &$value) {
      if (is_bool($value)) {
        $value = (int) $value;

    // We need to wrap queries with a savepoint if:
    // - Currently in a transaction.
    // - A 'mimic_implicit_commit' does not exist already.
    // - The query is not a savepoint query.
    $wrap_with_savepoint = $this
      ->inTransaction() && !isset($this->transactionLayers['mimic_implicit_commit']) && !(is_string($query) && (stripos($query, 'ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT ') === 0 || stripos($query, 'RELEASE SAVEPOINT ') === 0 || stripos($query, 'SAVEPOINT ') === 0));
    if ($wrap_with_savepoint) {

      // Create a savepoint so we can rollback a failed query. This is so we can
      // mimic MySQL and SQLite transactions which don't fail if a single query
      // fails. This is important for tables that are created on demand. For
      // example, \Drupal\Core\Cache\DatabaseBackend.
      try {
        $return = parent::query($query, $args, $options);
      } catch (\Exception $e) {
        throw $e;
    else {
      $return = parent::query($query, $args, $options);
    return $return;
  public function prepareQuery($query) {

    // mapConditionOperator converts some operations (LIKE, REGEXP, etc.) to
    // PostgreSQL equivalents (ILIKE, ~*, etc.). However PostgreSQL doesn't
    // automatically cast the fields to the right type for these operators,
    // so we need to alter the query and add the type-cast.
    return parent::prepareQuery(preg_replace('/ ([^ ]+) +(I*LIKE|NOT +I*LIKE|~\\*) /i', ' ${1}::text ${2} ', $query));
  public function queryRange($query, $from, $count, array $args = [], array $options = []) {
    return $this
      ->query($query . ' LIMIT ' . (int) $count . ' OFFSET ' . (int) $from, $args, $options);
  public function queryTemporary($query, array $args = [], array $options = []) {
    $tablename = $this
      ->query('CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE {' . $tablename . '} AS ' . $query, $args, $options);
    return $tablename;

   * {@inheritdoc}
  public function escapeField($field) {
    $escaped = parent::escapeField($field);

    // Remove any invalid start character.
    $escaped = preg_replace('/^[^A-Za-z0-9_]/', '', $escaped);

    // The pgsql database driver does not support field names that contain
    // periods (supported by PostgreSQL server) because this method may be
    // called by a field with a table alias as part of SQL conditions or
    // order by statements. This will consider a period as a table alias
    // identifier, and split the string at the first period.
    if (preg_match('/^([A-Za-z0-9_]+)"?[.]"?([A-Za-z0-9_.]+)/', $escaped, $parts)) {
      $table = $parts[1];
      $column = $parts[2];

      // Use escape alias because escapeField may contain multiple periods that
      // need to be escaped.
      $escaped = $this
        ->escapeTable($table) . '.' . $this
    else {
      $escaped = $this
    return $escaped;

   * {@inheritdoc}
  public function escapeAlias($field) {
    $escaped = preg_replace('/[^A-Za-z0-9_]+/', '', $field);
    $escaped = $this
    return $escaped;

   * {@inheritdoc}
  public function escapeTable($table) {
    $escaped = parent::escapeTable($table);

    // Ensure that each part (database, schema and table) of the table name is
    // properly and independently escaped.
    $parts = explode('.', $escaped);
    $parts = array_map([
    ], $parts);
    $escaped = implode('.', $parts);
    return $escaped;

   * Escape a string if needed.
   * @param $string
   *   The string to escape.
   * @return string
   *   The escaped string.
  protected function doEscape($string) {

    // Quote identifier to make it case-sensitive.
    if (preg_match('/[A-Z]/', $string)) {
      $string = '"' . $string . '"';
    elseif (in_array(strtolower($string), $this->postgresqlReservedKeyWords)) {

      // Quote the string for PostgreSQL reserved key words.
      $string = '"' . $string . '"';
    return $string;
  public function driver() {
    return 'pgsql';
  public function databaseType() {
    return 'pgsql';

   * Overrides \Drupal\Core\Database\Connection::createDatabase().
   * @param string $database
   *   The name of the database to create.
   * @throws \Drupal\Core\Database\DatabaseNotFoundException
  public function createDatabase($database) {

    // Escape the database name.
    $database = Database::getConnection()

    // If the PECL intl extension is installed, use it to determine the proper
    // locale.  Otherwise, fall back to en_US.
    if (class_exists('Locale')) {
      $locale = \Locale::getDefault();
    else {
      $locale = 'en_US';
    try {

      // Create the database and set it as active.
        ->exec("CREATE DATABASE {$database} WITH TEMPLATE template0 ENCODING='utf8' LC_CTYPE='{$locale}.utf8' LC_COLLATE='{$locale}.utf8'");
    } catch (\Exception $e) {
      throw new DatabaseNotFoundException($e
  public function mapConditionOperator($operator) {
    return isset(static::$postgresqlConditionOperatorMap[$operator]) ? static::$postgresqlConditionOperatorMap[$operator] : NULL;

   * Retrieve a the next id in a sequence.
   * PostgreSQL has built in sequences. We'll use these instead of inserting
   * and updating a sequences table.
  public function nextId($existing = 0) {

    // Retrieve the name of the sequence. This information cannot be cached
    // because the prefix may change, for example, like it does in simpletests.
    $sequence_name = $this
      ->makeSequenceName('sequences', 'value');

    // When PostgreSQL gets a value too small then it will lock the table,
    // retry the INSERT and if it's still too small then alter the sequence.
    $id = $this
      ->query("SELECT nextval('" . $sequence_name . "')")
    if ($id > $existing) {
      return $id;

    // PostgreSQL advisory locks are simply locks to be used by an
    // application such as Drupal. This will prevent other Drupal processes
    // from altering the sequence while we are.
      ->query("SELECT pg_advisory_lock(" . self::POSTGRESQL_NEXTID_LOCK . ")");

    // While waiting to obtain the lock, the sequence may have been altered
    // so lets try again to obtain an adequate value.
    $id = $this
      ->query("SELECT nextval('" . $sequence_name . "')")
    if ($id > $existing) {
        ->query("SELECT pg_advisory_unlock(" . self::POSTGRESQL_NEXTID_LOCK . ")");
      return $id;

    // Reset the sequence to a higher value than the existing id.
      ->query("ALTER SEQUENCE " . $sequence_name . " RESTART WITH " . ($existing + 1));

    // Retrieve the next id. We know this will be as high as we want it.
    $id = $this
      ->query("SELECT nextval('" . $sequence_name . "')")
      ->query("SELECT pg_advisory_unlock(" . self::POSTGRESQL_NEXTID_LOCK . ")");
    return $id;

   * {@inheritdoc}
  public function getFullQualifiedTableName($table) {
    $options = $this
    $prefix = $this

    // The fully qualified table name in PostgreSQL is in the form of
    // <database>.<schema>.<table>, so we have to include the 'public' schema in
    // the return value.
    return $options['database'] . '.public.' . $prefix . $table;

   * Add a new savepoint with an unique name.
   * The main use for this method is to mimic InnoDB functionality, which
   * provides an inherent savepoint before any query in a transaction.
   * @param $savepoint_name
   *   A string representing the savepoint name. By default,
   *   "mimic_implicit_commit" is used.
   * @see Drupal\Core\Database\Connection::pushTransaction()
  public function addSavepoint($savepoint_name = 'mimic_implicit_commit') {
    if ($this
      ->inTransaction()) {

   * Release a savepoint by name.
   * @param $savepoint_name
   *   A string representing the savepoint name. By default,
   *   "mimic_implicit_commit" is used.
   * @see Drupal\Core\Database\Connection::popTransaction()
  public function releaseSavepoint($savepoint_name = 'mimic_implicit_commit') {
    if (isset($this->transactionLayers[$savepoint_name])) {

   * Rollback a savepoint by name if it exists.
   * @param $savepoint_name
   *   A string representing the savepoint name. By default,
   *   "mimic_implicit_commit" is used.
  public function rollbackSavepoint($savepoint_name = 'mimic_implicit_commit') {
    if (isset($this->transactionLayers[$savepoint_name])) {

   * {@inheritdoc}
  public function upsert($table, array $options = []) {

    // Use the (faster) native Upsert implementation for PostgreSQL >= 9.5.
    if (version_compare($this
      ->version(), '9.5', '>=')) {
      $class = $this
    else {
      $class = $this
    return new $class($this, $table, $options);



Contains filters are case sensitive
Namesort descending Modifiers Type Description Overrides
Connection::$connection protected property The actual PDO connection.
Connection::$connectionOptions protected property The connection information for this connection object.
Connection::$driverClasses protected property Index of what driver-specific class to use for various operations.
Connection::$escapedAliases protected property List of escaped aliases names, keyed by unescaped aliases.
Connection::$escapedNames protected property List of escaped database, table, and field names, keyed by unescaped names.
Connection::$key protected property The key representing this connection.
Connection::$logger protected property The current database logging object for this connection.
Connection::$postgresqlConditionOperatorMap protected static property A map of condition operators to PostgreSQL operators.
Connection::$postgresqlReservedKeyWords protected property The list of PostgreSQL reserved key words.
Connection::$prefixes protected property The prefixes used by this database connection.
Connection::$prefixReplace protected property List of replacement values for use in prefixTables().
Connection::$prefixSearch protected property List of search values for use in prefixTables().
Connection::$schema protected property The schema object for this connection.
Connection::$statementClass protected property The name of the Statement class for this connection.
Connection::$target protected property The database target this connection is for.
Connection::$temporaryNameIndex protected property An index used to generate unique temporary table names.
Connection::$transactionalDDLSupport protected property Whether this database connection supports transactional DDL.
Connection::$transactionLayers protected property Tracks the number of "layers" of transactions currently active.
Connection::$transactionSupport protected property Whether this database connection supports transactions.
Connection::$unprefixedTablesMap protected property List of un-prefixed table names, keyed by prefixed table names.
Connection::addSavepoint public function Add a new savepoint with an unique name.
Connection::clientVersion public function Returns the version of the database client.
Connection::commit public function Throws an exception to deny direct access to transaction commits.
Connection::CONNECTION_FAILURE constant Error code for "Connection failure" errors.
Connection::createDatabase public function Overrides \Drupal\Core\Database\Connection::createDatabase(). Overrides Connection::createDatabase
Connection::databaseType public function Returns the name of the PDO driver for this connection. Overrides Connection::databaseType
Connection::DATABASE_NOT_FOUND constant Error code for "Unknown database" error.
Connection::defaultOptions protected function Returns the default query options for any given query.
Connection::delete public function Prepares and returns a DELETE query object.
Connection::destroy public function Destroys this Connection object.
Connection::doEscape protected function Escape a string if needed.
Connection::driver public function Returns the type of database driver. Overrides Connection::driver
Connection::escapeAlias public function Escapes an alias name string. Overrides Connection::escapeAlias
Connection::escapeDatabase public function Escapes a database name string.
Connection::escapeField public function Escapes a field name string. Overrides Connection::escapeField
Connection::escapeLike public function Escapes characters that work as wildcard characters in a LIKE pattern.
Connection::escapeTable public function Escapes a table name string. Overrides Connection::escapeTable
Connection::expandArguments protected function Expands out shorthand placeholders.
Connection::filterComment protected function Sanitize a query comment string.
Connection::generateTemporaryTableName protected function Generates a temporary table name.
Connection::getConnectionOptions public function Returns the connection information for this connection object.
Connection::getDriverClass public function Gets the driver-specific override class if any for the specified class.
Connection::getFullQualifiedTableName public function Get a fully qualified table name. Overrides Connection::getFullQualifiedTableName
Connection::getKey public function Returns the key this connection is associated with.
Connection::getLogger public function Gets the current logging object for this connection.
Connection::getSQLState protected static function Extracts the SQLSTATE error from the PDOException.
Connection::getTarget public function Returns the target this connection is associated with.
Connection::getUnprefixedTablesMap public function Gets a list of individually prefixed table names.
Connection::handleQueryException protected function Wraps and re-throws any PDO exception thrown by static::query().
Connection::insert public function Prepares and returns an INSERT query object.
Connection::inTransaction public function Determines if there is an active transaction open.
Connection::makeComment public function Flatten an array of query comments into a single comment string.
Connection::makeSequenceName public function Creates the appropriate sequence name for a given table and serial field.
Connection::mapConditionOperator public function Gets any special processing requirements for the condition operator. Overrides Connection::mapConditionOperator
Connection::merge public function Prepares and returns a MERGE query object.
Connection::nextId public function Retrieve a the next id in a sequence. Overrides Connection::nextId
Connection::open public static function Opens a PDO connection. Overrides Connection::open
Connection::popCommittableTransactions protected function Internal function: commit all the transaction layers that can commit.
Connection::popTransaction public function Decreases the depth of transaction nesting.
Connection::POSTGRESQL_NEXTID_LOCK constant The name by which to obtain a lock for retrieve the next insert id.
Connection::prefixTables public function Appends a database prefix to all tables in a query.
Connection::prepare public function Prepares a statement for execution and returns a statement object
Connection::prepareQuery public function Prepares a query string and returns the prepared statement. Overrides Connection::prepareQuery
Connection::pushTransaction public function Increases the depth of transaction nesting.
Connection::query public function Executes a query string against the database. Overrides Connection::query
Connection::queryRange public function Runs a limited-range query on this database object. Overrides Connection::queryRange
Connection::queryTemporary public function Runs a SELECT query and stores its results in a temporary table. Overrides Connection::queryTemporary
Connection::quote public function Quotes a string for use in a query.
Connection::releaseSavepoint public function Release a savepoint by name.
Connection::rollBack public function Rolls back the transaction entirely or to a named savepoint.
Connection::rollbackSavepoint public function Rollback a savepoint by name if it exists.
Connection::schema public function Returns a DatabaseSchema object for manipulating the schema.
Connection::select public function Prepares and returns a SELECT query object.
Connection::setKey public function Tells this connection object what its key is.
Connection::setLogger public function Associates a logging object with this connection.
Connection::setPrefix protected function Set the list of prefixes used by this database connection.
Connection::setTarget public function Tells this connection object what its target value is.
Connection::startTransaction public function Returns a new DatabaseTransaction object on this connection.
Connection::supportsTransactionalDDL public function Determines if this driver supports transactional DDL.
Connection::supportsTransactions public function Determines if this driver supports transactions.
Connection::tablePrefix public function Find the prefix for a table.
Connection::transactionDepth public function Determines the current transaction depth.
Connection::truncate public function Prepares and returns a TRUNCATE query object.
Connection::update public function Prepares and returns an UPDATE query object.
Connection::upsert public function Prepares and returns an UPSERT query object. Overrides Connection::upsert
Connection::version public function Returns the version of the database server.
Connection::__construct public function Constructs a connection object. Overrides Connection::__construct
Connection::__sleep public function Prevents the database connection from being serialized.