1. 8.5.x core/includes/common.inc
  2. 8.0.x core/includes/common.inc
  3. 8.1.x core/includes/common.inc
  4. 8.2.x core/includes/common.inc
  5. 8.3.x core/includes/common.inc
  6. 8.4.x core/includes/common.inc
  7. 8.6.x core/includes/common.inc
  8. 4.6.x includes/common.inc
  9. 4.7.x includes/common.inc
  10. 5.x includes/common.inc
  11. 6.x includes/common.inc
  12. 7.x includes/common.inc

Common functions that many Drupal modules will need to reference.

The functions that are critical and need to be available even when serving a cached page are instead located in bootstrap.inc.

File

includes/common.inc
View source
<?php

/**
 * @file
 * Common functions that many Drupal modules will need to reference.
 *
 * The functions that are critical and need to be available even when serving
 * a cached page are instead located in bootstrap.inc.
 */

/**
 * Return status for saving which involved creating a new item.
 */
define('SAVED_NEW', 1);

/**
 * Return status for saving which involved an update to an existing item.
 */
define('SAVED_UPDATED', 2);

/**
 * Return status for saving which deleted an existing item.
 */
define('SAVED_DELETED', 3);

/**
 * Set content for a specified region.
 *
 * @param $region
 *   Page region the content is assigned to.
 *
 * @param $data
 *   Content to be set.
 */
function drupal_set_content($region = NULL, $data = NULL) {
  static $content = array();
  if (!is_null($region) && !is_null($data)) {
    $content[$region][] = $data;
  }
  return $content;
}

/**
 * Get assigned content.
 *
 * @param $region
 *   A specified region to fetch content for. If NULL, all regions will be returned.
 *
 * @param $delimiter
 *   Content to be inserted between exploded array elements.
 */
function drupal_get_content($region = NULL, $delimiter = ' ') {
  $content = drupal_set_content();
  if (isset($region)) {
    if (isset($content[$region]) && is_array($content[$region])) {
      return implode($delimiter, $content[$region]);
    }
  }
  else {
    foreach (array_keys($content) as $region) {
      if (is_array($content[$region])) {
        $content[$region] = implode($delimiter, $content[$region]);
      }
    }
    return $content;
  }
}

/**
 * Set the breadcrumb trail for the current page.
 *
 * @param $breadcrumb
 *   Array of links, starting with "home" and proceeding up to but not including
 *   the current page.
 */
function drupal_set_breadcrumb($breadcrumb = NULL) {
  static $stored_breadcrumb;
  if (!is_null($breadcrumb)) {
    $stored_breadcrumb = $breadcrumb;
  }
  return $stored_breadcrumb;
}

/**
 * Get the breadcrumb trail for the current page.
 */
function drupal_get_breadcrumb() {
  $breadcrumb = drupal_set_breadcrumb();
  if (is_null($breadcrumb)) {
    $breadcrumb = menu_get_active_breadcrumb();
  }
  return $breadcrumb;
}

/**
 * Add output to the head tag of the HTML page.
 * This function can be called as long the headers aren't sent.
 */
function drupal_set_html_head($data = NULL) {
  static $stored_head = '';
  if (!is_null($data)) {
    $stored_head .= $data . "\n";
  }
  return $stored_head;
}

/**
 * Retrieve output to be displayed in the head tag of the HTML page.
 */
function drupal_get_html_head() {
  $output = "<meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=utf-8\" />\n";
  return $output . drupal_set_html_head();
}

/**
 * Reset the static variable which holds the aliases mapped for this request.
 */
function drupal_clear_path_cache() {
  drupal_lookup_path('wipe');
}

/**
 * Set an HTTP response header for the current page.
 *
 * Note: when sending a Content-Type header, always include a 'charset' type
 * too. This is necessary to avoid security bugs (e.g. UTF-7 XSS).
 */
function drupal_set_header($header = NULL) {

  // We use an array to guarantee there are no leading or trailing delimiters.
  // Otherwise, header('') could get called when serving the page later, which
  // ends HTTP headers prematurely on some PHP versions.
  static $stored_headers = array();
  if (strlen($header)) {
    header($header);
    $stored_headers[] = $header;
  }
  return implode("\n", $stored_headers);
}

/**
 * Get the HTTP response headers for the current page.
 */
function drupal_get_headers() {
  return drupal_set_header();
}

/**
 * Make any final alterations to the rendered xhtml.
 */
function drupal_final_markup($content) {

  // Make sure that the charset is always specified as the first element of the
  // head region to prevent encoding-based attacks.
  return preg_replace('/<head[^>]*>/i', "\$0\n<meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=utf-8\" />", $content, 1);
}

/**
 * Add a feed URL for the current page.
 *
 * @param $url
 *   The url for the feed
 * @param $title
 *   The title of the feed
 */
function drupal_add_feed($url = NULL, $title = '') {
  static $stored_feed_links = array();
  if (!is_null($url)) {
    $stored_feed_links[$url] = theme('feed_icon', $url);
    drupal_add_link(array(
      'rel' => 'alternate',
      'type' => 'application/rss+xml',
      'title' => $title,
      'href' => $url,
    ));
  }
  return $stored_feed_links;
}

/**
 * Get the feed URLs for the current page.
 *
 * @param $delimiter
 *   The delimiter to split feeds by
 */
function drupal_get_feeds($delimiter = "\n") {
  $feeds = drupal_add_feed();
  return implode($feeds, $delimiter);
}

/**
 * @name HTTP handling
 * @{
 * Functions to properly handle HTTP responses.
 */

/**
 * Parse an array into a valid urlencoded query string.
 *
 * @param $query
 *   The array to be processed e.g. $_GET
 * @param $exclude
 *   The array filled with keys to be excluded. Use parent[child] to exclude nested items.
 * @param $parent
 *   Should not be passed, only used in recursive calls
 * @return
 *   urlencoded string which can be appended to/as the URL query string
 */
function drupal_query_string_encode($query, $exclude = array(), $parent = '') {
  $params = array();
  foreach ($query as $key => $value) {
    $key = drupal_urlencode($key);
    if ($parent) {
      $key = $parent . '[' . $key . ']';
    }
    if (in_array($key, $exclude)) {
      continue;
    }
    if (is_array($value)) {
      $params[] = drupal_query_string_encode($value, $exclude, $key);
    }
    else {
      $params[] = $key . '=' . drupal_urlencode($value);
    }
  }
  return implode('&', $params);
}

/**
 * Prepare a destination query string for use in combination with
 * drupal_goto(). Used to direct the user back to the referring page
 * after completing a form. By default the current URL is returned.
 * If a destination exists in the previous request, that destination
 * is returned. As such, a destination can persist across multiple
 * pages.
 *
 * @see drupal_goto()
 */
function drupal_get_destination() {
  if (isset($_REQUEST['destination'])) {
    return 'destination=' . urlencode($_REQUEST['destination']);
  }
  else {

    // Use $_GET here to retrieve the original path in source form.
    $path = isset($_GET['q']) ? $_GET['q'] : '';
    $query = drupal_query_string_encode($_GET, array(
      'q',
    ));
    if ($query != '') {
      $path .= '?' . $query;
    }
    return 'destination=' . urlencode($path);
  }
}

/**
 * Send the user to a different Drupal page.
 *
 * This issues an on-site HTTP redirect. The function makes sure the redirected
 * URL is formatted correctly.
 *
 * Usually the redirected URL is constructed from this function's input
 * parameters. However you may override that behavior by setting a
 * <em>destination</em> in either the $_REQUEST-array (i.e. by using
 * the query string of an URI) or the $_REQUEST['edit']-array (i.e. by
 * using a hidden form field). This is used to direct the user back to
 * the proper page after completing a form. For example, after editing
 * a post on the 'admin/content/node'-page or after having logged on using the
 * 'user login'-block in a sidebar. The function drupal_get_destination()
 * can be used to help set the destination URL.
 *
 * Drupal will ensure that messages set by drupal_set_message() and other
 * session data are written to the database before the user is redirected.
 *
 * This function ends the request; use it rather than a print theme('page')
 * statement in your menu callback.
 *
 * @param $path
 *   A Drupal path or a full URL.
 * @param $query
 *   The query string component, if any.
 * @param $fragment
 *   The destination fragment identifier (named anchor).
 * @param $http_response_code
 *   Valid values for an actual "goto" as per RFC 2616 section 10.3 are:
 *   - 301 Moved Permanently (the recommended value for most redirects)
 *   - 302 Found (default in Drupal and PHP, sometimes used for spamming search
 *         engines)
 *   - 303 See Other
 *   - 304 Not Modified
 *   - 305 Use Proxy
 *   - 307 Temporary Redirect (an alternative to "503 Site Down for Maintenance")
 *   Note: Other values are defined by RFC 2616, but are rarely used and poorly
 *         supported.
 * @see drupal_get_destination()
 */
function drupal_goto($path = '', $query = NULL, $fragment = NULL, $http_response_code = 302) {
  $destination = FALSE;
  if (isset($_REQUEST['destination'])) {
    $destination = $_REQUEST['destination'];
  }
  else {
    if (isset($_REQUEST['edit']['destination'])) {
      $destination = $_REQUEST['edit']['destination'];
    }
  }
  if ($destination) {

    // Do not redirect to an absolute URL originating from user input.
    $colonpos = strpos($destination, ':');
    $absolute = $colonpos !== FALSE && !preg_match('![/?#]!', substr($destination, 0, $colonpos));
    if (!$absolute) {
      extract(parse_url(urldecode($destination)));
    }
  }
  $url = url($path, $query, $fragment, TRUE);

  // Remove newlines from the URL to avoid header injection attacks.
  $url = str_replace(array(
    "\n",
    "\r",
  ), '', $url);

  // Before the redirect, allow modules to react to the end of the page request.
  module_invoke_all('exit', $url);

  // Even though session_write_close() is registered as a shutdown function, we
  // need all session data written to the database before redirecting.
  session_write_close();
  header('Location: ' . $url, TRUE, $http_response_code);

  // The "Location" header sends a REDIRECT status code to the http
  // daemon. In some cases this can go wrong, so we make sure none
  // of the code below the drupal_goto() call gets executed when we redirect.
  exit;
}

/**
 * Generates a site off-line message
 */
function drupal_site_offline() {
  drupal_set_header('HTTP/1.1 503 Service unavailable');
  drupal_set_title(t('Site off-line'));
  print theme('maintenance_page', filter_xss_admin(variable_get('site_offline_message', t('@site is currently under maintenance. We should be back shortly. Thank you for your patience.', array(
    '@site' => variable_get('site_name', 'Drupal'),
  )))));
}

/**
 * Generates a 404 error if the request can not be handled.
 */
function drupal_not_found() {
  drupal_set_header('HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found');
  watchdog('page not found', check_plain($_GET['q']), WATCHDOG_WARNING);

  // Keep old path for reference
  if (!isset($_REQUEST['destination'])) {
    $_REQUEST['destination'] = $_GET['q'];
  }
  $path = drupal_get_normal_path(variable_get('site_404', ''));
  if ($path && $path != $_GET['q']) {
    menu_set_active_item($path);
    $return = menu_execute_active_handler();
  }
  else {

    // Redirect to a non-existent menu item to make possible tabs disappear.
    menu_set_active_item('');
  }
  if (empty($return) || $return == MENU_NOT_FOUND || $return == MENU_ACCESS_DENIED) {
    drupal_set_title(t('Page not found'));
    menu_set_active_item('');
    $return = '';
  }

  // To conserve CPU and bandwidth, omit the blocks
  print theme('page', $return, FALSE);
}

/**
 * Generates a 403 error if the request is not allowed.
 */
function drupal_access_denied() {
  drupal_set_header('HTTP/1.1 403 Forbidden');
  watchdog('access denied', check_plain($_GET['q']), WATCHDOG_WARNING);

  // Keep old path for reference
  if (!isset($_REQUEST['destination'])) {
    $_REQUEST['destination'] = $_GET['q'];
  }
  $path = drupal_get_normal_path(variable_get('site_403', ''));
  if ($path && $path != $_GET['q']) {
    menu_set_active_item($path);
    $return = menu_execute_active_handler();
  }
  else {

    // Redirect to a non-existent menu item to make possible tabs disappear.
    menu_set_active_item('');
  }
  if (empty($return) || $return == MENU_NOT_FOUND || $return == MENU_ACCESS_DENIED) {
    drupal_set_title(t('Access denied'));
    menu_set_active_item('');
    $return = t('You are not authorized to access this page.');
  }
  print theme('page', $return);
}

/**
 * Perform an HTTP request.
 *
 * This is a flexible and powerful HTTP client implementation. Correctly handles
 * GET, POST, PUT or any other HTTP requests. Handles redirects.
 *
 * @param $url
 *   A string containing a fully qualified URI.
 * @param $headers
 *   An array containing an HTTP header => value pair.
 * @param $method
 *   A string defining the HTTP request to use.
 * @param $data
 *   A string containing data to include in the request.
 * @param $retry
 *   An integer representing how many times to retry the request in case of a
 *   redirect.
 * @return
 *   An object containing the HTTP request headers, response code, headers,
 *   data, and redirect status.
 */
function drupal_http_request($url, $headers = array(), $method = 'GET', $data = NULL, $retry = 3) {
  $result = new stdClass();

  // Parse the URL, and make sure we can handle the schema.
  $uri = parse_url($url);
  if ($uri == FALSE) {
    $result->error = 'unable to parse URL';
    $result->code = -1001;
    return $result;
  }
  if (!isset($uri['scheme'])) {
    $result->error = 'missing schema';
    $result->code = -1002;
    return $result;
  }
  switch ($uri['scheme']) {
    case 'http':
      $port = isset($uri['port']) ? $uri['port'] : 80;
      $host = $uri['host'] . ($port != 80 ? ':' . $port : '');
      $fp = @fsockopen($uri['host'], $port, $errno, $errstr, 15);
      break;
    case 'https':

      // Note: Only works for PHP 4.3 compiled with OpenSSL.
      $port = isset($uri['port']) ? $uri['port'] : 443;
      $host = $uri['host'] . ($port != 443 ? ':' . $port : '');
      $fp = @fsockopen('ssl://' . $uri['host'], $port, $errno, $errstr, 20);
      break;
    default:
      $result->error = 'invalid schema ' . $uri['scheme'];
      $result->code = -1003;
      return $result;
  }

  // Make sure the socket opened properly.
  if (!$fp) {
    $result->error = trim($errno . ' ' . $errstr);
    $result->code = -$errno;
    return $result;
  }

  // Construct the path to act on.
  $path = isset($uri['path']) ? $uri['path'] : '/';
  if (isset($uri['query'])) {
    $path .= '?' . $uri['query'];
  }

  // Create HTTP request.
  $defaults = array(
    // RFC 2616: "non-standard ports MUST, default ports MAY be included".
    // We don't add the port to prevent from breaking rewrite rules checking
    // the host that do not take into account the port number.
    'Host' => "Host: {$host}",
    'User-Agent' => 'User-Agent: Drupal (+http://drupal.org/)',
    'Content-Length' => 'Content-Length: ' . strlen($data),
  );

  // If the server url has a user then attempt to use basic authentication
  if (isset($uri['user'])) {
    $defaults['Authorization'] = 'Authorization: Basic ' . base64_encode($uri['user'] . (!empty($uri['pass']) ? ":" . $uri['pass'] : ''));
  }
  foreach ($headers as $header => $value) {
    $defaults[$header] = $header . ': ' . $value;
  }
  $request = $method . ' ' . $path . " HTTP/1.0\r\n";
  $request .= implode("\r\n", $defaults);
  $request .= "\r\n\r\n";
  if ($data) {
    $request .= $data . "\r\n";
  }
  $result->request = $request;
  fwrite($fp, $request);

  // Fetch response.
  $response = '';
  while (!feof($fp) && ($chunk = fread($fp, 1024))) {
    $response .= $chunk;
  }
  fclose($fp);

  // Parse response.
  list($split, $result->data) = explode("\r\n\r\n", $response, 2);
  $split = preg_split("/\r\n|\n|\r/", $split);
  list($protocol, $code, $text) = explode(' ', trim(array_shift($split)), 3);
  $result->headers = array();

  // Parse headers.
  while ($line = trim(array_shift($split))) {
    list($header, $value) = explode(':', $line, 2);
    if (isset($result->headers[$header]) && $header == 'Set-Cookie') {

      // RFC 2109: the Set-Cookie response header comprises the token Set-
      // Cookie:, followed by a comma-separated list of one or more cookies.
      $result->headers[$header] .= ',' . trim($value);
    }
    else {
      $result->headers[$header] = trim($value);
    }
  }
  $responses = array(
    100 => 'Continue',
    101 => 'Switching Protocols',
    200 => 'OK',
    201 => 'Created',
    202 => 'Accepted',
    203 => 'Non-Authoritative Information',
    204 => 'No Content',
    205 => 'Reset Content',
    206 => 'Partial Content',
    300 => 'Multiple Choices',
    301 => 'Moved Permanently',
    302 => 'Found',
    303 => 'See Other',
    304 => 'Not Modified',
    305 => 'Use Proxy',
    307 => 'Temporary Redirect',
    400 => 'Bad Request',
    401 => 'Unauthorized',
    402 => 'Payment Required',
    403 => 'Forbidden',
    404 => 'Not Found',
    405 => 'Method Not Allowed',
    406 => 'Not Acceptable',
    407 => 'Proxy Authentication Required',
    408 => 'Request Time-out',
    409 => 'Conflict',
    410 => 'Gone',
    411 => 'Length Required',
    412 => 'Precondition Failed',
    413 => 'Request Entity Too Large',
    414 => 'Request-URI Too Large',
    415 => 'Unsupported Media Type',
    416 => 'Requested range not satisfiable',
    417 => 'Expectation Failed',
    500 => 'Internal Server Error',
    501 => 'Not Implemented',
    502 => 'Bad Gateway',
    503 => 'Service Unavailable',
    504 => 'Gateway Time-out',
    505 => 'HTTP Version not supported',
  );

  // RFC 2616 states that all unknown HTTP codes must be treated the same as
  // the base code in their class.
  if (!isset($responses[$code])) {
    $code = floor($code / 100) * 100;
  }
  switch ($code) {
    case 200:

      // OK

    // OK
    case 304:

      // Not modified
      break;
    case 301:

      // Moved permanently

    // Moved permanently
    case 302:

      // Moved temporarily

    // Moved temporarily
    case 307:

      // Moved temporarily
      $location = $result->headers['Location'];
      if ($retry) {
        $result = drupal_http_request($result->headers['Location'], $headers, $method, $data, --$retry);
        $result->redirect_code = $result->code;
      }
      $result->redirect_url = $location;
      break;
    default:
      $result->error = $text;
  }
  $result->code = $code;
  return $result;
}

/**
 * @} End of "HTTP handling".
 */

/**
 * Log errors as defined by administrator
 * Error levels:
 *  0 = Log errors to database.
 *  1 = Log errors to database and to screen.
 */
function error_handler($errno, $message, $filename, $line) {

  // If the @ error suppression operator was used, error_reporting is temporarily set to 0
  if (error_reporting() == 0) {
    return;
  }
  if ($errno & (E_ALL ^ E_NOTICE)) {
    $types = array(
      1 => 'error',
      2 => 'warning',
      4 => 'parse error',
      8 => 'notice',
      16 => 'core error',
      32 => 'core warning',
      64 => 'compile error',
      128 => 'compile warning',
      256 => 'user error',
      512 => 'user warning',
      1024 => 'user notice',
      2048 => 'strict warning',
      4096 => 'recoverable fatal error',
    );
    $entry = $types[$errno] . ': ' . $message . ' in ' . $filename . ' on line ' . $line . '.';

    // Force display of error messages in update.php
    if (variable_get('error_level', 1) == 1 || strstr($_SERVER['SCRIPT_NAME'], 'update.php')) {
      drupal_set_message($entry, 'error');
    }
    watchdog('php', t('%message in %file on line %line.', array(
      '%error' => $types[$errno],
      '%message' => $message,
      '%file' => $filename,
      '%line' => $line,
    )), WATCHDOG_ERROR);
  }
}
function _fix_gpc_magic(&$item) {
  if (is_array($item)) {
    array_walk($item, '_fix_gpc_magic');
  }
  else {
    $item = stripslashes($item);
  }
}

/**
 * Helper function to strip slashes from $_FILES skipping over the tmp_name keys
 * since PHP generates single backslashes for file paths on Windows systems.
 *
 * tmp_name does not have backslashes added see
 * http://php.net/manual/en/features.file-upload.php#42280
 */
function _fix_gpc_magic_files(&$item, $key) {
  if ($key != 'tmp_name') {
    if (is_array($item)) {
      array_walk($item, '_fix_gpc_magic_files');
    }
    else {
      $item = stripslashes($item);
    }
  }
}

/**
 * Correct double-escaping problems caused by "magic quotes" in some PHP
 * installations.
 */
function fix_gpc_magic() {
  static $fixed = FALSE;
  if (!$fixed && ini_get('magic_quotes_gpc')) {
    array_walk($_GET, '_fix_gpc_magic');
    array_walk($_POST, '_fix_gpc_magic');
    array_walk($_COOKIE, '_fix_gpc_magic');
    array_walk($_REQUEST, '_fix_gpc_magic');
    array_walk($_FILES, '_fix_gpc_magic_files');
    $fixed = TRUE;
  }
}

/**
 * Initialize the localization system.
 */
function locale_initialize() {
  global $user;
  if (function_exists('i18n_get_lang')) {
    return i18n_get_lang();
  }
  if (function_exists('locale')) {
    $languages = locale_supported_languages();
    $languages = $languages['name'];
  }
  else {

    // Ensure the locale/language is correctly returned, even without locale.module.
    // Useful for e.g. XML/HTML 'lang' attributes.
    $languages = array(
      'en' => 'English',
    );
  }
  if ($user->uid && isset($languages[$user->language])) {
    return $user->language;
  }
  else {
    return key($languages);
  }
}

/**
 * Translate strings to the current locale.
 *
 * Human-readable text that will be displayed somewhere within a page should
 * be run through the t() function.
 *
 * Examples:
 * @code
 *   if (!$info || !$info['extension']) {
 *     form_set_error('picture_upload', t('The uploaded file was not an image.'));
 *   }
 *
 *   $form['submit'] = array(
 *     '#type' => 'submit',
 *     '#value' => t('Log in'),
 *   );
 * @endcode
 *
 * Any text within t() can be extracted by translators and changed into
 * the equivalent text in their native language.
 *
 * Special variables called "placeholders" are used to signal dynamic
 * information in a string which should not be translated. Placeholders
 * can also be used for text that may change from time to time
 * (such as link paths) to be changed without requiring updates to translations.
 *
 * For example:
 * @code
 *   $output = t('There are currently %members and %visitors online.', array(
 *     '%members' => format_plural($total_users, '1 user', '@count users'),
 *     '%visitors' => format_plural($guests->count, '1 guest', '@count guests')));
 * @endcode
 *
 * There are three styles of placeholders:
 * - !variable, which indicates that the text should be inserted as-is. This is
 *   useful for inserting variables into things like e-mail.
 *   @code
 *     $message[] = t("If you don't want to receive such e-mails, you can change your settings at !url.", array('!url' => url("user/$account->uid", NULL, NULL, TRUE)));
 *   @endcode
 *
 * - @variable, which indicates that the text should be run through
 *   check_plain, to escape HTML characters. Use this for any output that's
 *   displayed within a Drupal page.
 *   @code
 *     drupal_set_title($title = t("@name's blog", array('@name' => $account->name)));
 *   @endcode
 *
 * - %variable, which indicates that the string should be HTML escaped and
 *   highlighted with theme_placeholder() which shows up by default as
 *   <em>emphasized</em>.
 *   @code
 *     $message = t('%name-from sent %name-to an e-mail.', array('%name-from' => $user->name, '%name-to' => $account->name));
 *   @endcode
 *
 * When using t(), try to put entire sentences and strings in one t() call.
 * This makes it easier for translators, as it provides context as to what
 * each word refers to. HTML markup within translation strings is allowed, but
 * should be avoided if possible. The exception are embedded links; link
 * titles add a context for translators, so should be kept in the main string.
 *
 * Here is an example of incorrect usage of t():
 * @code
 *   $output .= t('<p>Go to the @contact-page.</p>', array('@contact-page' => l(t('contact page'), 'contact')));
 * @endcode
 *
 * Here is an example of t() used correctly:
 * @code
 *   $output .= '<p>'. t('Go to the <a href="@contact-page">contact page</a>.', array('@contact-page' => url('contact'))) .'</p>';
 * @endcode
 *
 * Avoid escaping quotation marks wherever possible.
 *
 * Incorrect:
 * @code
 *   $output .= t('Don\'t click me.');
 * @endcode
 *
 * Correct:
 * @code
 *   $output .= t("Don't click me.");
 * @endcode
 *
 * Because t() is designed for handling code-based strings, in almost all
 * cases, the actual string and not a variable must be passed through t().
 *
 * Extraction of translations is done based on the strings contained in t()
 * calls. If a variable is passed through t(), the content of the variable
 * cannot be extracted from the file for translation.
 *
 * Incorrect:
 * @code
 *   $message = 'An error occurred.';
 *   drupal_set_message(t($message), 'error');
 *   $output .= t($message);
 * @endcode
 *
 * Correct:
 * @code
 *   $message = t('An error occurred.');
 *   drupal_set_message($message, 'error');
 *   $output .= $message;
 * @endcode
 *
 * The only case in which variables can be passed safely through t() is when
 * code-based versions of the same strings will be passed through t() (or
 * otherwise extracted) elsewhere.
 *
 * In some cases, modules may include strings in code that can't use t()
 * calls. For example, a module may use an external PHP application that
 * produces strings that are loaded into variables in Drupal for output.
 * In these cases, module authors may include a dummy file that passes the
 * relevant strings through t(). This approach will allow the strings to be
 * extracted.
 *
 * Sample external (non-Drupal) code:
 * @code
 *   class Time {
 *     public $yesterday = 'Yesterday';
 *     public $today = 'Today';
 *     public $tomorrow = 'Tomorrow';
 *   }
 * @endcode
 *
 * Sample dummy file.
 * @code
 *   // Dummy function included in example.potx.inc.
 *   function example_potx() {
 *     $strings = array(
 *       t('Yesterday'),
 *       t('Today'),
 *       t('Tomorrow'),
 *     );
 *     // No return value needed, since this is a dummy function.
 *   }
 * @endcode
 *
 * Having passed strings through t() in a dummy function, it is then
 * okay to pass variables through t().
 *
 * Correct (if a dummy file was used):
 * @code
 *   $time = new Time();
 *   $output .= t($time->today);
 * @endcode
 *
 * However tempting it is, custom data from user input or other non-code
 * sources should not be passed through t(). Doing so leads to the following
 * problems and errors:
 *  - The t() system doesn't support updates to existing strings. When user
 *    data is updated, the next time it's passed through t() a new record is
 *    created instead of an update. The database bloats over time and any
 *    existing translations are orphaned with each update.
 *  - The t() system assumes any data it receives is in English. User data may
 *    be in another language, producing translation errors.
 *  - The "Built-in interface" text group in the locale system is used to
 *    produce translations for storage in .po files. When non-code strings are
 *    passed through t(), they are added to this text group, which is rendered
 *    inaccurate since it is a mix of actual interface strings and various user
 *    input strings of uncertain origin.
 *
 * Incorrect:
 * @code
 *   $item = item_load();
 *   $output .= check_plain(t($item['title']));
 * @endcode
 *
 * Instead, translation of these data can be done through the locale system,
 * either directly or through helper functions provided by contributed
 * modules.
 * @see hook_locale()
 *
 * During installation, st() is used in place of t(). Code that may be called
 * during installation or during normal operation should use the get_t()
 * helper function.
 * @see st()
 * @see get_t()
 *
 * @param $string
 *   A string containing the English string to translate.
 * @param $args
 *   An associative array of replacements to make after translation. Incidences
 *   of any key in this array are replaced with the corresponding value.
 *   Based on the first character of the key, the value is escaped and/or themed:
 *    - !variable: inserted as is
 *    - @variable: escape plain text to HTML (check_plain)
 *    - %variable: escape text and theme as a placeholder for user-submitted
 *      content (check_plain + theme_placeholder)
 * @return
 *   The translated string.
 */
function t($string, $args = 0) {
  global $locale;
  if (function_exists('locale') && $locale != 'en') {
    $string = locale($string);
  }
  if (!$args) {
    return $string;
  }
  else {

    // Transform arguments before inserting them
    foreach ($args as $key => $value) {
      switch ($key[0]) {

        // Escaped only
        case '@':
          $args[$key] = check_plain($value);
          break;

          // Escaped and placeholder

        // Escaped and placeholder
        case '%':
        default:
          $args[$key] = theme('placeholder', $value);
          break;

          // Pass-through

        // Pass-through
        case '!':
      }
    }
    return strtr($string, $args);
  }
}

/**
 * @defgroup validation Input validation
 * @{
 * Functions to validate user input.
 */

/**
 * Verify the syntax of the given e-mail address.
 *
 * Empty e-mail addresses are allowed. See RFC 2822 for details.
 *
 * @param $mail
 *   A string containing an e-mail address.
 * @return
 *   TRUE if the address is in a valid format.
 */
function valid_email_address($mail) {
  $user = '[a-zA-Z0-9_\\-\\.\\+\\^!#\\$%&*+\\/\\=\\?\\`\\|\\{\\}~\']+';
  $domain = '(?:(?:[a-zA-Z0-9]|[a-zA-Z0-9][a-zA-Z0-9\\-]*[a-zA-Z0-9])\\.?)+';
  $ipv4 = '[0-9]{1,3}(\\.[0-9]{1,3}){3}';
  $ipv6 = '[0-9a-fA-F]{1,4}(\\:[0-9a-fA-F]{1,4}){7}';
  return preg_match("/^{$user}@({$domain}|(\\[({$ipv4}|{$ipv6})\\]))\$/", $mail);
}

/**
 * Verify the syntax of the given URL.
 *
 * This function should only be used on actual URLs. It should not be used for
 * Drupal menu paths, which can contain arbitrary characters.
 * Valid values per RFC 3986.
 * @param $url
 *   The URL to verify.
 * @param $absolute
 *   Whether the URL is absolute (beginning with a scheme such as "http:").
 * @return
 *   TRUE if the URL is in a valid format.
 */
function valid_url($url, $absolute = FALSE) {
  if ($absolute) {
    return (bool) preg_match("\n      /^                                                      # Start at the beginning of the text\n      (?:ftp|https?):\\/\\/                                     # Look for ftp, http, or https schemes\n      (?:                                                     # Userinfo (optional) which is typically\n        (?:(?:[\\w\\.\\-\\+!\$&'\\(\\)*\\+,;=]|%[0-9a-f]{2})+:)*      # a username or a username and password\n        (?:[\\w\\.\\-\\+%!\$&'\\(\\)*\\+,;=]|%[0-9a-f]{2})+@          # combination\n      )?\n      (?:\n        (?:[a-z0-9\\-\\.]|%[0-9a-f]{2})+                        # A domain name or a IPv4 address\n        |(?:\\[(?:[0-9a-f]{0,4}:)*(?:[0-9a-f]{0,4})\\])         # or a well formed IPv6 address\n      )\n      (?::[0-9]+)?                                            # Server port number (optional)\n      (?:[\\/|\\?]\n        (?:[\\w#!:\\.\\?\\+=&@\$'~*,;\\/\\(\\)\\[\\]\\-]|%[0-9a-f]{2})   # The path and query (optional)\n      *)?\n    \$/xi", $url);
  }
  else {
    return (bool) preg_match("/^(?:[\\w#!:\\.\\?\\+=&@\$'~*,;\\/\\(\\)\\[\\]\\-]|%[0-9a-f]{2})+\$/i", $url);
  }
}

/**
 * Register an event for the current visitor (hostname/IP) to the flood control mechanism.
 *
 * @param $name
 *   The name of the event.
 */
function flood_register_event($name) {
  db_query("INSERT INTO {flood} (event, hostname, timestamp) VALUES ('%s', '%s', %d)", $name, $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'], time());
}

/**
 * Check if the current visitor (hostname/IP) is allowed to proceed with the specified event.
 * The user is allowed to proceed if he did not trigger the specified event more than
 * $threshold times per hour.
 *
 * @param $name
 *   The name of the event.
 * @param $number
 *   The maximum number of the specified event per hour (per visitor).
 * @return
 *   True if the user did not exceed the hourly threshold. False otherwise.
 */
function flood_is_allowed($name, $threshold) {
  $number = db_num_rows(db_query("SELECT event FROM {flood} WHERE event = '%s' AND hostname = '%s' AND timestamp > %d", $name, $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'], time() - 3600));
  return $number < $threshold ? TRUE : FALSE;
}
function check_file($filename) {
  return is_uploaded_file($filename);
}

/**
 * Prepare a URL for use in an HTML attribute. Strips harmful protocols.
 *
 */
function check_url($uri) {
  return filter_xss_bad_protocol($uri, FALSE);
}

/**
 * @defgroup format Formatting
 * @{
 * Functions to format numbers, strings, dates, etc.
 */

/**
 * Formats an RSS channel.
 *
 * Arbitrary elements may be added using the $args associative array.
 */
function format_rss_channel($title, $link, $description, $items, $language = 'en', $args = array()) {

  // arbitrary elements may be added using the $args associative array
  $output = "<channel>\n";
  $output .= ' <title>' . check_plain($title) . "</title>\n";
  $output .= ' <link>' . check_url($link) . "</link>\n";

  // The RSS 2.0 "spec" doesn't indicate HTML can be used in the description.
  // We strip all HTML tags, but need to prevent double encoding from properly
  // escaped source data (such as &amp becoming &amp;amp;).
  $output .= ' <description>' . check_plain(decode_entities(strip_tags($description))) . "</description>\n";
  $output .= ' <language>' . check_plain($language) . "</language>\n";
  $output .= format_xml_elements($args);
  $output .= $items;
  $output .= "</channel>\n";
  return $output;
}

/**
 * Format a single RSS item.
 *
 * Arbitrary elements may be added using the $args associative array.
 */
function format_rss_item($title, $link, $description, $args = array()) {
  $output = "<item>\n";
  $output .= ' <title>' . check_plain($title) . "</title>\n";
  $output .= ' <link>' . check_url($link) . "</link>\n";
  $output .= ' <description>' . check_plain($description) . "</description>\n";
  $output .= format_xml_elements($args);
  $output .= "</item>\n";
  return $output;
}

/**
 * Format XML elements.
 *
 * @param $array
 *   An array where each item represent an element and is either a:
 *   - (key => value) pair (<key>value</key>)
 *   - Associative array with fields:
 *     - 'key': element name
 *     - 'value': element contents
 *     - 'attributes': associative array of element attributes
 *
 * In both cases, 'value' can be a simple string, or it can be another array
 * with the same format as $array itself for nesting.
 */
function format_xml_elements($array) {
  foreach ($array as $key => $value) {
    if (is_numeric($key)) {
      if ($value['key']) {
        $output .= ' <' . $value['key'];
        if (isset($value['attributes']) && is_array($value['attributes'])) {
          $output .= drupal_attributes($value['attributes']);
        }
        if ($value['value'] != '') {
          $output .= '>' . (is_array($value['value']) ? format_xml_elements($value['value']) : check_plain($value['value'])) . '</' . $value['key'] . ">\n";
        }
        else {
          $output .= " />\n";
        }
      }
    }
    else {
      $output .= ' <' . $key . '>' . (is_array($value) ? format_xml_elements($value) : check_plain($value)) . "</{$key}>\n";
    }
  }
  return $output;
}

/**
 * Format a string containing a count of items.
 *
 * This function ensures that the string is pluralized correctly. Since t() is
 * called by this function, make sure not to pass already-localized strings to it.
 *
 * @param $count
 *   The item count to display.
 * @param $singular
 *   The string for the singular case. Please make sure it is clear this is
 *   singular, to ease translation (e.g. use "1 new comment" instead of "1 new").
 * @param $plural
 *   The string for the plural case. Please make sure it is clear this is plural,
 *   to ease translation. Use @count in place of the item count, as in "@count
 *   new comments".
 * @return
 *   A translated string.
 */
function format_plural($count, $singular, $plural) {
  if ($count == 1) {
    return t($singular, array(
      "@count" => $count,
    ));
  }

  // get the plural index through the gettext formula
  $index = function_exists('locale_get_plural') ? locale_get_plural($count) : -1;
  if ($index < 0) {

    // backward compatibility
    return t($plural, array(
      "@count" => $count,
    ));
  }
  else {
    switch ($index) {
      case "0":
        return t($singular, array(
          "@count" => $count,
        ));
      case "1":
        return t($plural, array(
          "@count" => $count,
        ));
      default:
        return t(strtr($plural, array(
          "@count" => '@count[' . $index . ']',
        )), array(
          '@count[' . $index . ']' => $count,
        ));
    }
  }
}

/**
 * Parse a given byte count.
 *
 * @param $size
 *   The size expressed as a number of bytes with optional SI size and unit
 *   suffix (e.g. 2, 3K, 5MB, 10G).
 * @return
 *   An integer representation of the size.
 */
function parse_size($size) {
  $suffixes = array(
    '' => 1,
    'k' => 1024,
    'm' => 1048576,
    // 1024 * 1024
    'g' => 1073741824,
  );
  if (preg_match('/([0-9]+)\\s*(k|m|g)?(b?(ytes?)?)/i', $size, $match)) {
    return $match[1] * $suffixes[drupal_strtolower($match[2])];
  }
}

/**
 * Generate a string representation for the given byte count.
 *
 * @param $size
 *   The size in bytes.
 * @return
 *   A translated string representation of the size.
 */
function format_size($size) {
  if ($size < 1024) {
    return format_plural($size, '1 byte', '@count bytes');
  }
  else {
    $size = round($size / 1024, 2);
    $suffix = t('KB');
    if ($size >= 1024) {
      $size = round($size / 1024, 2);
      $suffix = t('MB');
    }
    return t('@size @suffix', array(
      '@size' => $size,
      '@suffix' => $suffix,
    ));
  }
}

/**
 * Format a time interval with the requested granularity.
 *
 * @param $timestamp
 *   The length of the interval in seconds.
 * @param $granularity
 *   How many different units to display in the string.
 * @return
 *   A translated string representation of the interval.
 */
function format_interval($timestamp, $granularity = 2) {
  $units = array(
    '1 year|@count years' => 31536000,
    '1 week|@count weeks' => 604800,
    '1 day|@count days' => 86400,
    '1 hour|@count hours' => 3600,
    '1 min|@count min' => 60,
    '1 sec|@count sec' => 1,
  );
  $output = '';
  foreach ($units as $key => $value) {
    $key = explode('|', $key);
    if ($timestamp >= $value) {
      $output .= ($output ? ' ' : '') . format_plural(floor($timestamp / $value), $key[0], $key[1]);
      $timestamp %= $value;
      $granularity--;
    }
    if ($granularity == 0) {
      break;
    }
  }
  return $output ? $output : t('0 sec');
}

/**
 * Format a date with the given configured format or a custom format string.
 *
 * Drupal allows administrators to select formatting strings for 'small',
 * 'medium' and 'large' date formats. This function can handle these formats,
 * as well as any custom format.
 *
 * @param $timestamp
 *   The exact date to format, as a UNIX timestamp.
 * @param $type
 *   The format to use. Can be "small", "medium" or "large" for the preconfigured
 *   date formats. If "custom" is specified, then $format is required as well.
 * @param $format
 *   A PHP date format string as required by date(). A backslash should be used
 *   before a character to avoid interpreting the character as part of a date
 *   format.
 * @param $timezone
 *   Time zone offset in seconds; if omitted, the user's time zone is used.
 * @return
 *   A translated date string in the requested format.
 */
function format_date($timestamp, $type = 'medium', $format = '', $timezone = NULL) {
  if (!isset($timezone)) {
    global $user;
    if (variable_get('configurable_timezones', 1) && $user->uid && strlen($user->timezone)) {
      $timezone = $user->timezone;
    }
    else {
      $timezone = variable_get('date_default_timezone', 0);
    }
  }
  $timestamp += $timezone;
  switch ($type) {
    case 'small':
      $format = variable_get('date_format_short', 'm/d/Y - H:i');
      break;
    case 'large':
      $format = variable_get('date_format_long', 'l, F j, Y - H:i');
      break;
    case 'custom':

      // No change to format
      break;
    case 'medium':
    default:
      $format = variable_get('date_format_medium', 'D, m/d/Y - H:i');
  }
  $max = strlen($format);
  $date = '';
  for ($i = 0; $i < $max; $i++) {
    $c = $format[$i];
    if (strpos('AaDFlM', $c) !== FALSE) {
      $date .= t(gmdate($c, $timestamp));
    }
    else {
      if (strpos('BdgGhHiIjLmnsStTUwWYyz', $c) !== FALSE) {
        $date .= gmdate($c, $timestamp);
      }
      else {
        if ($c == 'r') {
          $date .= format_date($timestamp - $timezone, 'custom', 'D, d M Y H:i:s O', $timezone);
        }
        else {
          if ($c == 'O') {
            $date .= sprintf('%s%02d%02d', $timezone < 0 ? '-' : '+', abs($timezone / 3600), abs($timezone % 3600) / 60);
          }
          else {
            if ($c == 'Z') {
              $date .= $timezone;
            }
            else {
              if ($c == '\\') {
                $date .= $format[++$i];
              }
              else {
                $date .= $c;
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
  return $date;
}

/**
 * @} End of "defgroup format".
 */

/**
 * Generate a URL from a Drupal menu path. Will also pass-through existing URLs.
 *
 * @param $path
 *   The Drupal path being linked to, such as "admin/content/node", or an existing URL
 *   like "http://drupal.org/".
 * @param $query
 *   A query string to append to the link or URL.
 * @param $fragment
 *   A fragment identifier (named anchor) to append to the link. If an existing
 *   URL with a fragment identifier is used, it will be replaced. Note, do not
 *   include the '#'.
 * @param $absolute
 *   Whether to force the output to be an absolute link (beginning with http:).
 *   Useful for links that will be displayed outside the site, such as in an
 *   RSS feed.
 * @return
 *   a string containing a URL to the given path.
 *
 * When creating links in modules, consider whether l() could be a better
 * alternative than url().
 */
function url($path = NULL, $query = NULL, $fragment = NULL, $absolute = FALSE) {
  if (isset($fragment)) {
    $fragment = '#' . $fragment;
  }

  // Return an external link if $path contains an allowed absolute URL.
  // Only call the slow filter_xss_bad_protocol if $path contains a ':' before any / ? or #.
  $colonpos = strpos($path, ':');
  if ($colonpos !== FALSE && !preg_match('![/?#]!', substr($path, 0, $colonpos)) && filter_xss_bad_protocol($path, FALSE) == check_plain($path)) {

    // Split off the fragment
    if (strpos($path, '#') !== FALSE) {
      list($path, $old_fragment) = explode('#', $path, 2);
      if (isset($old_fragment) && !isset($fragment)) {
        $fragment = '#' . $old_fragment;
      }
    }

    // Append the query
    if (isset($query)) {
      $path .= (strpos($path, '?') !== FALSE ? '&' : '?') . $query;
    }

    // Reassemble
    return $path . $fragment;
  }
  global $base_url;
  static $script;
  static $clean_url;
  if (!isset($script)) {

    // On some web servers, such as IIS, we can't omit "index.php". So, we
    // generate "index.php?q=foo" instead of "?q=foo" on anything that is not
    // Apache.
    $script = strpos($_SERVER['SERVER_SOFTWARE'], 'Apache') === FALSE ? 'index.php' : '';
  }

  // Cache the clean_url variable to improve performance.
  if (!isset($clean_url)) {
    $clean_url = (bool) variable_get('clean_url', '0');
  }
  $base = $absolute ? $base_url . '/' : base_path();

  // The special path '<front>' links to the default front page.
  if (!empty($path) && $path != '<front>') {
    $path = drupal_get_path_alias($path);
    $path = drupal_urlencode($path);
    if (!$clean_url) {
      if (isset($query)) {
        return $base . $script . '?q=' . $path . '&' . $query . $fragment;
      }
      else {
        return $base . $script . '?q=' . $path . $fragment;
      }
    }
    else {
      if (isset($query)) {
        return $base . $path . '?' . $query . $fragment;
      }
      else {
        return $base . $path . $fragment;
      }
    }
  }
  else {
    if (isset($query)) {
      return $base . $script . '?' . $query . $fragment;
    }
    else {
      return $base . $fragment;
    }
  }
}

/**
 * Format an attribute string to insert in a tag.
 *
 * @param $attributes
 *   An associative array of HTML attributes.
 * @return
 *   An HTML string ready for insertion in a tag.
 */
function drupal_attributes($attributes = array()) {
  if (is_array($attributes)) {
    $t = '';
    foreach ($attributes as $key => $value) {
      $t .= " {$key}=" . '"' . check_plain($value) . '"';
    }
    return $t;
  }
}

/**
 * Format an internal Drupal link.
 *
 * This function correctly handles aliased paths, and allows themes to highlight
 * links to the current page correctly, so all internal links output by modules
 * should be generated by this function if possible.
 *
 * @param $text
 *   The text to be enclosed with the anchor tag.
 * @param $path
 *   The Drupal path being linked to, such as "admin/content/node". Can be an external
 *   or internal URL.
 *     - If you provide the full URL, it will be considered an
 *   external URL.
 *     - If you provide only the path (e.g. "admin/content/node"), it is considered an
 *   internal link. In this case, it must be a system URL as the url() function
 *   will generate the alias.
 * @param $attributes
 *   An associative array of HTML attributes to apply to the anchor tag.
 * @param $query
 *   A query string to append to the link.
 * @param $fragment
 *   A fragment identifier (named anchor) to append to the link.
 * @param $absolute
 *   Whether to force the output to be an absolute link (beginning with http:).
 *   Useful for links that will be displayed outside the site, such as in an RSS
 *   feed.
 * @param $html
 *   Whether the title is HTML, or just plain-text. For example for making an
 *   image a link, this must be set to TRUE, or else you will see the encoded
 *   HTML.
 * @return
 *   an HTML string containing a link to the given path.
 */
function l($text, $path, $attributes = array(), $query = NULL, $fragment = NULL, $absolute = FALSE, $html = FALSE) {
  if ($path == $_GET['q'] || $path == '<front>' && drupal_is_front_page()) {
    if (isset($attributes['class'])) {
      $attributes['class'] .= ' active';
    }
    else {
      $attributes['class'] = 'active';
    }
  }
  return '<a href="' . check_url(url($path, $query, $fragment, $absolute)) . '"' . drupal_attributes($attributes) . '>' . ($html ? $text : check_plain($text)) . '</a>';
}

/**
 * Perform end-of-request tasks.
 *
 * This function sets the page cache if appropriate, and allows modules to
 * react to the closing of the page by calling hook_exit().
 */
function drupal_page_footer() {
  if (variable_get('cache', 0)) {
    page_set_cache();
  }
  module_invoke_all('exit');
}

/**
 * Form an associative array from a linear array.
 *
 * This function walks through the provided array and constructs an associative
 * array out of it. The keys of the resulting array will be the values of the
 * input array. The values will be the same as the keys unless a function is
 * specified, in which case the output of the function is used for the values
 * instead.
 *
 * @param $array
 *   A linear array.
 * @param $function
 *   The name of a function to apply to all values before output.
 * @result
 *   An associative array.
 */
function drupal_map_assoc($array, $function = NULL) {
  if (!isset($function)) {
    $result = array();
    foreach ($array as $value) {
      $result[$value] = $value;
    }
    return $result;
  }
  elseif (function_exists($function)) {
    $result = array();
    foreach ($array as $value) {
      $result[$value] = $function($value);
    }
    return $result;
  }
}

/**
 * Evaluate a string of PHP code.
 *
 * This is a wrapper around PHP's eval(). It uses output buffering to capture both
 * returned and printed text. Unlike eval(), we require code to be surrounded by
 * <?php ?> tags; in other words, we evaluate the code as if it were a stand-alone
 * PHP file.
 *
 * Using this wrapper also ensures that the PHP code which is evaluated can not
 * overwrite any variables in the calling code, unlike a regular eval() call.
 *
 * @param $code
 *   The code to evaluate.
 * @return
 *   A string containing the printed output of the code, followed by the returned
 *   output of the code.
 */
function drupal_eval($code) {
  ob_start();
  print eval('?>' . $code);
  $output = ob_get_contents();
  ob_end_clean();
  return $output;
}

/**
 * Returns the path to a system item (module, theme, etc.).
 *
 * @param $type
 *   The type of the item (i.e. theme, theme_engine, module).
 * @param $name
 *   The name of the item for which the path is requested.
 *
 * @return
 *   The path to the requested item.
 */
function drupal_get_path($type, $name) {
  return dirname(drupal_get_filename($type, $name));
}

/**
 * Returns the base URL path of the Drupal installation.
 * At the very least, this will always default to /.
 */
function base_path() {
  return $GLOBALS['base_path'];
}

/**
 * Provide a substitute clone() function for PHP4.
 */
function drupal_clone($object) {
  return version_compare(phpversion(), '5.0') < 0 ? $object : clone $object;
}

/**
 * Add a <link> tag to the page's HEAD.
 */
function drupal_add_link($attributes) {
  drupal_set_html_head('<link' . drupal_attributes($attributes) . " />\n");
}

/**
 * Adds a CSS file to the stylesheet queue.
 *
 * @param $path
 *   (optional) The path to the CSS file relative to the base_path(), e.g.,
 *   /modules/devel/devel.css.
 * @param $type
 *   (optional) The type of stylesheet that is being added. Types are: module
 *   or theme.
 * @param $media
 *   (optional) The media type for the stylesheet, e.g., all, print, screen.
 * @param $preprocess
 *   (optional) Should this CSS file be aggregated and compressed if this
 *   feature has been turned on under the performance section?
 *
 *   What does this actually mean?
 *   CSS preprocessing is the process of aggregating a bunch of separate CSS
 *   files into one file that is then compressed by removing all extraneous
 *   white space.
 *
 *   The reason for merging the CSS files is outlined quite thoroughly here:
 *   http://www.die.net/musings/page_load_time/
 *   "Load fewer external objects. Due to request overhead, one bigger file
 *   just loads faster than two smaller ones half its size."
 *
 *   However, you should *not* preprocess every file as this can lead to
 *   redundant caches. You should set $preprocess = FALSE when:
 *
 *     - Your styles are only used rarely on the site. This could be a special
 *       admin page, the homepage, or a handful of pages that does not represent
 *       the majority of the pages on your site.
 *
 *   Typical candidates for caching are for example styles for nodes across
 *   the site, or used in the theme.
 * @return
 *   An array of CSS files.
 */
function drupal_add_css($path = NULL, $type = 'module', $media = 'all', $preprocess = TRUE) {
  static $css = array();

  // Create an array of CSS files for each media type first, since each type needs to be served
  // to the browser differently.
  if (isset($path)) {

    // This check is necessary to ensure proper cascading of styles and is faster than an asort().
    if (!isset($css[$media])) {
      $css[$media] = array(
        'module' => array(),
        'theme' => array(),
      );
    }
    $css[$media][$type][$path] = $preprocess;
  }
  return $css;
}

/**
 * Returns a themed representation of all stylesheets that should be attached to the page.
 * It loads the CSS in order, with 'core' CSS first, then 'module' CSS, then 'theme' CSS files.
 * This ensures proper cascading of styles for easy overriding in modules and themes.
 *
 * @param $css
 *   (optional) An array of CSS files. If no array is provided, the default stylesheets array is used instead.
 * @return
 *   A string of XHTML CSS tags.
 */
function drupal_get_css($css = NULL) {
  $output = '';
  if (!isset($css)) {
    $css = drupal_add_css();
  }
  $preprocess_css = variable_get('preprocess_css', FALSE);
  $directory = file_directory_path();
  $is_writable = is_dir($directory) && is_writable($directory) && variable_get('file_downloads', FILE_DOWNLOADS_PUBLIC) == FILE_DOWNLOADS_PUBLIC;
  foreach ($css as $media => $types) {

    // If CSS preprocessing is off, we still need to output the styles.
    // Additionally, go through any remaining styles if CSS preprocessing is on and output the non-cached ones.
    foreach ($types as $type => $files) {
      foreach ($types[$type] as $file => $preprocess) {
        if (!$preprocess || !($is_writable && $preprocess_css)) {

          // If a CSS file is not to be preprocessed and it's a module CSS file, it needs to *always* appear at the *top*,
          // regardless of whether preprocessing is on or off.
          if (!$preprocess && $type == 'module') {
            $no_module_preprocess .= '<style type="text/css" media="' . $media . '">@import "' . base_path() . $file . '";</style>' . "\n";
          }
          else {
            if (!$preprocess && $type == 'theme') {
              $no_theme_preprocess .= '<style type="text/css" media="' . $media . '">@import "' . base_path() . $file . '";</style>' . "\n";
            }
            else {
              $output .= '<style type="text/css" media="' . $media . '">@import "' . base_path() . $file . '";</style>' . "\n";
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }
    if ($is_writable && $preprocess_css) {
      $filename = md5(serialize($types)) . '.css';
      $preprocess_file = drupal_build_css_cache($types, $filename);
      $output .= '<style type="text/css" media="' . $media . '">@import "' . base_path() . $preprocess_file . '";</style>' . "\n";
    }
  }
  return $no_module_preprocess . $output . $no_theme_preprocess;
}

/**
 * Aggregate and optimize CSS files, putting them in the files directory.
 *
 * @param $types
 *   An array of types of CSS files (e.g., screen, print) to aggregate and compress into one file.
 * @param $filename
 *   The name of the aggregate CSS file.
 * @return
 *   The name of the CSS file.
 */
function drupal_build_css_cache($types, $filename) {
  $data = '';

  // Create the css/ within the files folder.
  $csspath = file_create_path('css');
  file_check_directory($csspath, FILE_CREATE_DIRECTORY);
  if (!file_exists($csspath . '/' . $filename)) {

    // Build aggregate CSS file.
    foreach ($types as $type) {
      foreach ($type as $file => $cache) {
        if ($cache) {
          $contents = file_get_contents($file);

          // Remove multiple charset declarations for standards compliance (and fixing Safari problems)
          $contents = preg_replace('/^@charset\\s+[\'"](\\S*)\\b[\'"];/i', '', $contents);

          // Return the path to where this CSS file originated from, stripping off the name of the file at the end of the path.
          $path = base_path() . substr($file, 0, strrpos($file, '/')) . '/';

          // Wraps all @import arguments in url().
          $contents = preg_replace('/@import\\s+(?!url)[\'"]?(\\S*)\\b[\'"]?/i', '@import url("\\1")', $contents);

          // Fix all paths within this CSS file, ignoring absolute paths.
          $data .= preg_replace('/url\\(([\'"]?)(?![a-z]+:)/i', 'url(\\1' . $path . '\\2', $contents);
        }
      }
    }

    // @import rules must proceed any other style, so we move those to the top.
    $regexp = '/@import[^;]+;/i';
    preg_match_all($regexp, $data, $matches);
    $data = preg_replace($regexp, '', $data);
    $data = implode('', $matches[0]) . $data;

    // Perform some safe CSS optimizations.
    $data = preg_replace('<
      \\s*([@{}:;,]|\\)\\s|\\s\\()\\s* |  # Remove whitespace around separators, but keep space around parentheses.
      /\\*([^*\\\\]|\\*(?!/))+\\*/ |   # Remove comments that are not CSS hacks.
      [\\n\\r]                        # Remove line breaks.
      >x', '\\1', $data);

    // Create the CSS file.
    file_save_data($data, $csspath . '/' . $filename, FILE_EXISTS_REPLACE);
  }
  return $csspath . '/' . $filename;
}

/**
 * Delete all cached CSS files.
 */
function drupal_clear_css_cache() {
  file_scan_directory(file_create_path('css'), '.*', array(
    '.',
    '..',
    'CVS',
  ), 'file_delete', TRUE);

  // Clear the page cache, so cached pages do not reference nonexistent CSS.
  cache_clear_all();
}

/**
 * Add a JavaScript file, setting or inline code to the page.
 *
 * The behavior of this function depends on the parameters it is called with.
 * Generally, it handles the addition of JavaScript to the page, either as
 * reference to an existing file or as inline code. The following actions can be
 * performed using this function:
 *
 * - Add a file ('core', 'module' and 'theme'):
 *   Adds a reference to a JavaScript file to the page. JavaScript files
 *   are placed in a certain order, from 'core' first, to 'module' and finally
 *   'theme' so that files, that are added later, can override previously added
 *   files with ease.
 *
 * - Add inline JavaScript code ('inline'):
 *   Executes a piece of JavaScript code on the current page by placing the code
 *   directly in the page. This can, for example, be useful to tell the user that
 *   a new message arrived, by opening a pop up, alert box etc.
 *
 * - Add settings ('setting'):
 *   Adds a setting to Drupal's global storage of JavaScript settings. Per-page
 *   settings are required by some modules to function properly. The settings
 *   will be accessible at Drupal.settings.
 *
 * @param $data
 *   (optional) If given, the value depends on the $type parameter:
 *   - 'core', 'module' or 'theme': Path to the file relative to base_path().
 *   - 'inline': The JavaScript code that should be placed in the given scope.
 *   - 'setting': An array with configuration options as associative array. The
 *       array is directly placed in Drupal.settings. You might want to wrap your
 *       actual configuration settings in another variable to prevent the pollution
 *       of the Drupal.settings namespace.
 * @param $type
 *   (optional) The type of JavaScript that should be added to the page. Allowed
 *   values are 'core', 'module', 'theme', 'inline' and 'setting'. You
 *   can, however, specify any value. It is treated as a reference to a JavaScript
 *   file. Defaults to 'module'.
 * @param $scope
 *   (optional) The location in which you want to place the script. Possible
 *   values are 'header' and 'footer' by default. If your theme implements
 *   different locations, however, you can also use these.
 * @param $defer
 *   (optional) If set to TRUE, the defer attribute is set on the <script> tag.
 *   Defaults to FALSE. This parameter is not used with $type == 'setting'.
 * @param $cache
 *   (optional) If set to FALSE, the JavaScript file is loaded anew on every page
 *   call, that means, it is not cached. Defaults to TRUE. Used only when $type
 *   references a JavaScript file.
 * @return
 *   If the first parameter is NULL, the JavaScript array that has been built so
 *   far for $scope is returned.
 */
function drupal_add_js($data = NULL, $type = 'module', $scope = 'header', $defer = FALSE, $cache = TRUE) {
  if (!is_null($data)) {
    _drupal_add_js('misc/jquery.js', 'core', 'header', FALSE, $cache);
    _drupal_add_js('misc/drupal.js', 'core', 'header', FALSE, $cache);
  }
  return _drupal_add_js($data, $type, $scope, $defer, $cache);
}

/**
 * Helper function for drupal_add_js().
 */
function _drupal_add_js($data, $type, $scope, $defer, $cache) {
  static $javascript = array();
  if (!isset($javascript[$scope])) {
    $javascript[$scope] = array(
      'core' => array(),
      'module' => array(),
      'theme' => array(),
      'setting' => array(),
      'inline' => array(),
    );
  }
  if (!isset($javascript[$scope][$type])) {
    $javascript[$scope][$type] = array();
  }
  if (!is_null($data)) {
    switch ($type) {
      case 'setting':
        $javascript[$scope][$type][] = $data;
        break;
      case 'inline':
        $javascript[$scope][$type][] = array(
          'code' => $data,
          'defer' => $defer,
        );
        break;
      default:
        $javascript[$scope][$type][$data] = array(
          'cache' => $cache,
          'defer' => $defer,
        );
    }
  }
  return $javascript[$scope];
}

/**
 * Returns a themed presentation of all JavaScript code for the current page.
 * References to JavaScript files are placed in a certain order: first, all
 * 'core' files, then all 'module' and finally all 'theme' JavaScript files
 * are added to the page. Then, all settings are output, followed by 'inline'
 * JavaScript code.
 *
 * @param $scope
 *   (optional) The scope for which the JavaScript rules should be returned.
 *   Defaults to 'header'.
 * @param $javascript
 *   (optional) An array with all JavaScript code. Defaults to the default
 *   JavaScript array for the given scope.
 * @return
 *   All JavaScript code segments and includes for the scope as HTML tags.
 */
function drupal_get_js($scope = 'header', $javascript = NULL) {
  $output = '';
  if (is_null($javascript)) {
    $javascript = drupal_add_js(NULL, NULL, $scope);
  }
  foreach ($javascript as $type => $data) {
    if (!$data) {
      continue;
    }
    switch ($type) {
      case 'setting':
        $output .= '<script type="text/javascript">Drupal.extend({ settings: ' . drupal_to_js(call_user_func_array('array_merge_recursive', $data)) . " });</script>\n";
        break;
      case 'inline':
        foreach ($data as $info) {
          $output .= '<script type="text/javascript"' . ($info['defer'] ? ' defer="defer"' : '') . '>' . $info['code'] . "</script>\n";
        }
        break;
      default:
        foreach ($data as $path => $info) {
          $output .= '<script type="text/javascript"' . ($info['defer'] ? ' defer="defer"' : '') . ' src="' . check_url(base_path() . $path) . ($info['cache'] ? '' : '?' . time()) . "\"></script>\n";
        }
    }
  }
  return $output;
}

/**
 * Converts a PHP variable into its Javascript equivalent.
 *
 * We use HTML-safe strings, i.e. with <, > and & escaped.
 */
function drupal_to_js($var) {
  switch (gettype($var)) {
    case 'boolean':
      return $var ? 'true' : 'false';

      // Lowercase necessary!

    // Lowercase necessary!
    case 'integer':
    case 'double':
      return $var;
    case 'resource':
    case 'string':
      return '"' . str_replace(array(
        "\r",
        "\n",
        "<",
        ">",
        "&",
      ), array(
        '\\r',
        '\\n',
        '\\x3c',
        '\\x3e',
        '\\x26',
      ), addslashes($var)) . '"';
    case 'array':

      // Arrays in JSON can't be associative. If the array is empty or if it
      // has sequential whole number keys starting with 0, it's not associative
      // so we can go ahead and convert it as an array.
      if (empty($var) || array_keys($var) === range(0, sizeof($var) - 1)) {
        $output = array();
        foreach ($var as $v) {
          $output[] = drupal_to_js($v);
        }
        return '[ ' . implode(', ', $output) . ' ]';
      }

      // Otherwise, fall through to convert the array as an object.

    // Otherwise, fall through to convert the array as an object.
    case 'object':
      $output = array();
      foreach ($var as $k => $v) {
        $output[] = drupal_to_js(strval($k)) . ': ' . drupal_to_js($v);
      }
      return '{ ' . implode(', ', $output) . ' }';
    default:
      return 'null';
  }
}

/**
 * Wrapper around urlencode() which avoids Apache quirks.
 *
 * Should be used when placing arbitrary data in an URL. Note that Drupal paths
 * are urlencoded() when passed through url() and do not require urlencoding()
 * of individual components.
 *
 * Notes:
 * - For esthetic reasons, we do not escape slashes. This also avoids a 'feature'
 *   in Apache where it 404s on any path containing '%2F'.
 * - mod_rewrite unescapes %-encoded ampersands, hashes, and slashes when clean
 *   URLs are used, which are interpreted as delimiters by PHP. These
 *   characters are double escaped so PHP will still see the encoded version.
 * - With clean URLs, Apache changes '//' to '/', so every second slash is
 *   double escaped.
 *
 * @param $text
 *   String to encode
 */
function drupal_urlencode($text) {
  if (variable_get('clean_url', '0')) {
    return str_replace(array(
      '%2F',
      '%26',
      '%23',
      '//',
    ), array(
      '/',
      '%2526',
      '%2523',
      '/%252F',
    ), urlencode($text));
  }
  else {
    return str_replace('%2F', '/', urlencode($text));
  }
}

/**
 * Ensure the private key variable used to generate tokens is set.
 *
 * @return
 *   The private key
 */
function drupal_get_private_key() {
  if (!($key = variable_get('drupal_private_key', 0))) {
    $key = md5(uniqid(mt_rand(), true)) . md5(uniqid(mt_rand(), true));
    variable_set('drupal_private_key', $key);
  }
  return $key;
}

/**
 * Generate a token based on $value, the current user session and private key.
 *
 * @param $value
 *   An additional value to base the token on
 */
function drupal_get_token($value = '') {
  $private_key = drupal_get_private_key();
  return md5(session_id() . $value . $private_key);
}

/**
 * Validate a token based on $value, the current user session and private key.
 *
 * @param $token
 *   The token to be validated.
 * @param $value
 *   An additional value to base the token on.
 * @param $skip_anonymous
 *   Set to true to skip token validation for anonymous users.
 * @return
 *   True for a valid token, false for an invalid token. When $skip_anonymous is true, the return value will always be true for anonymous users.
 */
function drupal_valid_token($token, $value = '', $skip_anonymous = FALSE) {
  global $user;
  return $skip_anonymous && $user->uid == 0 || $token == md5(session_id() . $value . variable_get('drupal_private_key', ''));
}

/**
 * Performs one or more XML-RPC request(s).
 *
 * @param $url
 *   An absolute URL of the XML-RPC endpoint.
 *     Example:
 *     http://www.example.com/xmlrpc.php
 * @param ...
 *   For one request:
 *     The method name followed by a variable number of arguments to the method.
 *   For multiple requests (system.multicall):
 *     An array of call arrays. Each call array follows the pattern of the single
 *     request: method name followed by the arguments to the method.
 * @return
 *   For one request:
 *     Either the return value of the method on success, or FALSE.
 *     If FALSE is returned, see xmlrpc_errno() and xmlrpc_error_msg().
 *   For multiple requests:
 *     An array of results. Each result will either be the result
 *     returned by the method called, or an xmlrpc_error object if the call
 *     failed. See xmlrpc_error().
 */
function xmlrpc($url) {
  require_once './includes/xmlrpc.inc';
  $args = func_get_args();
  return call_user_func_array('_xmlrpc', $args);
}
function _drupal_bootstrap_full() {
  static $called;
  global $locale;
  if ($called) {
    return;
  }
  $called = 1;
  require_once './includes/theme.inc';
  require_once './includes/pager.inc';
  require_once './includes/menu.inc';
  require_once './includes/tablesort.inc';
  require_once './includes/file.inc';
  require_once './includes/unicode.inc';
  require_once './includes/image.inc';
  require_once './includes/form.inc';

  // Set the Drupal custom error handler.
  set_error_handler('error_handler');

  // Emit the correct charset HTTP header.
  drupal_set_header('Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8');

  // Detect string handling method
  unicode_check();

  // Undo magic quotes
  fix_gpc_magic();

  // Load all enabled modules
  module_load_all();

  // Initialize the localization system.  Depends on i18n.module being loaded already.
  $locale = locale_initialize();

  // Let all modules take action before menu system handles the reqest
  module_invoke_all('init');
}

/**
 * Store the current page in the cache.
 *
 * We try to store a gzipped version of the cache. This requires the
 * PHP zlib extension (http://php.net/manual/en/ref.zlib.php).
 * Presence of the extension is checked by testing for the function
 * gzencode. There are two compression algorithms: gzip and deflate.
 * The majority of all modern browsers support gzip or both of them.
 * We thus only deal with the gzip variant and unzip the cache in case
 * the browser does not accept gzip encoding.
 *
 * @see drupal_page_header
 */
function page_set_cache() {
  global $user, $base_root;
  if (!$user->uid && $_SERVER['REQUEST_METHOD'] == 'GET' && count(drupal_get_messages(NULL, FALSE)) == 0) {

    // This will fail in some cases, see page_get_cache() for the explanation.
    if ($data = ob_get_contents()) {
      $cache = TRUE;
      if (function_exists('gzencode')) {

        // We do not store the data in case the zlib mode is deflate.
        // This should be rarely happening.
        if (zlib_get_coding_type() == 'deflate') {
          $cache = FALSE;
        }
        else {
          if (zlib_get_coding_type() == FALSE) {
            $data = gzencode($data, 9, FORCE_GZIP);
          }
        }

        // The remaining case is 'gzip' which means the data is
        // already compressed and nothing left to do but to store it.
      }
      ob_end_flush();
      if ($cache && $data) {
        cache_set($base_root . request_uri(), 'cache_page', $data, CACHE_TEMPORARY, drupal_get_headers());
      }
    }
  }
}

/**
 * Send an e-mail message, using Drupal variables and default settings.
 * More information in the PHP function reference for mail()
 * @param $mailkey
 *   A key to identify the mail sent, for altering.
 * @param $to
 *   The mail address or addresses where the message will be send to. The
 *   formatting of this string must comply with RFC 2822. Some examples are:
 *    user@example.com
 *    user@example.com, anotheruser@example.com
 *    User <user@example.com>
 *    User <user@example.com>, Another User <anotheruser@example.com>
 * @param $subject
 *   Subject of the e-mail to be sent. This must not contain any newline
 *   characters, or the mail may not be sent properly.
 * @param $body
 *   Message to be sent. Drupal will format the correct line endings for you.
 * @param $from
 *   Sets From to this value, if given.
 * @param $headers
 *   Associative array containing the headers to add. This is typically
 *   used to add extra headers (From, Cc, and Bcc).
 *   <em>When sending mail, the mail must contain a From header.</em>
 * @return Returns TRUE if the mail was successfully accepted for delivery,
 *   FALSE otherwise.
 */
function drupal_mail($mailkey, $to, $subject, $body, $from = NULL, $headers = array()) {
  $defaults = array(
    'MIME-Version' => '1.0',
    'Content-Type' => 'text/plain; charset=UTF-8; format=flowed',
    'Content-Transfer-Encoding' => '8Bit',
    'X-Mailer' => 'Drupal',
  );

  // To prevent e-mail from looking like spam, the addresses in the Sender and
  // Return-Path headers should have a domain authorized to use the originating
  // SMTP server.  Errors-To is redundant, but shouldn't hurt.
  $default_from = variable_get('site_mail', ini_get('sendmail_from'));
  if ($default_from) {
    $defaults['From'] = $defaults['Sender'] = $defaults['Return-Path'] = $defaults['Errors-To'] = $default_from;
  }
  if ($from) {
    $defaults['From'] = $from;
  }
  $headers = array_merge($defaults, $headers);

  // Custom hook traversal to allow pass by reference
  foreach (module_implements('mail_alter') as $module) {
    $function = $module . '_mail_alter';
    $function($mailkey, $to, $subject, $body, $from, $headers);
  }

  // Allow for custom mail backend
  if (variable_get('smtp_library', '') && file_exists(variable_get('smtp_library', ''))) {
    include_once './' . variable_get('smtp_library', '');
    return drupal_mail_wrapper($mailkey, $to, $subject, $body, $from, $headers);
  }
  else {

    // Note: if you are having problems with sending mail, or mails look wrong
    // when they are received you may have to modify the str_replace to suit
    // your systems.
    //  - \r\n will work under dos and windows.
    //  - \n will work for linux, unix and BSDs.
    //  - \r will work for macs.
    //
    // According to RFC 2646, it's quite rude to not wrap your e-mails:
    //
    // "The Text/Plain media type is the lowest common denominator of
    // Internet e-mail, with lines of no more than 997 characters (by
    // convention usually no more than 80), and where the CRLF sequence
    // represents a line break [MIME-IMT]."
    //
    // CRLF === \r\n
    //
    // http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2646.txt
    $mimeheaders = array();
    foreach ($headers as $name => $value) {
      $mimeheaders[] = $name . ': ' . mime_header_encode($value);
    }
    return mail($to, mime_header_encode($subject), str_replace("\r", '', $body), join("\n", $mimeheaders));
  }
}

/**
 * Executes a cron run when called
 * @return
 * Returns TRUE if ran successfully
 */
function drupal_cron_run() {

  // If not in 'safe mode', increase the maximum execution time:
  if (!ini_get('safe_mode')) {
    set_time_limit(240);
  }

  // Fetch the cron semaphore
  $semaphore = variable_get('cron_semaphore', FALSE);
  if ($semaphore) {
    if (time() - $semaphore > 3600) {

      // Either cron has been running for more than an hour or the semaphore
      // was not reset due to a database error.
      watchdog('cron', t('Cron has been running for more than an hour and is most likely stuck.'), WATCHDOG_ERROR);

      // Release cron semaphore
      variable_del('cron_semaphore');
    }
    else {

      // Cron is still running normally.
      watchdog('cron', t('Attempting to re-run cron while it is already running.'), WATCHDOG_WARNING);
    }
  }
  else {

    // Register shutdown callback
    register_shutdown_function('drupal_cron_cleanup');

    // Lock cron semaphore
    variable_set('cron_semaphore', time());

    // Iterate through the modules calling their cron handlers (if any):
    module_invoke_all('cron');

    // Record cron time
    variable_set('cron_last', time());
    watchdog('cron', t('Cron run completed.'), WATCHDOG_NOTICE);

    // Release cron semaphore
    variable_del('cron_semaphore');

    // Return TRUE so other functions can check if it did run successfully
    return TRUE;
  }
}

/**
 * Shutdown function for cron cleanup.
 */
function drupal_cron_cleanup() {

  // See if the semaphore is still locked.
  if (variable_get('cron_semaphore', FALSE)) {
    watchdog('cron', t('Cron run exceeded the time limit and was aborted.'), WATCHDOG_WARNING);

    // Release cron semaphore
    variable_del('cron_semaphore');
  }
}

/**
 * Returns an array of files objects of the given type from the site-wide
 * directory (i.e. modules/), the all-sites directory (i.e.
 * sites/all/modules/), the profiles directory, and site-specific directory
 * (i.e. sites/somesite/modules/). The returned array will be keyed using the
 * key specified (name, basename, filename). Using name or basename will cause
 * site-specific files to be prioritized over similar files in the default
 * directories. That is, if a file with the same name appears in both the
 * site-wide directory and site-specific directory, only the site-specific
 * version will be included.
 *
 * @param $mask
 *   The regular expression of the files to find.
 * @param $directory
 *   The subdirectory name in which the files are found. For example,
 *   'modules' will search in both modules/ and
 *   sites/somesite/modules/.
 * @param $key
 *   The key to be passed to file_scan_directory().
 * @param $min_depth
 *   Minimum depth of directories to return files from.
 *
 * @return
 *   An array of file objects of the specified type.
 */
function drupal_system_listing($mask, $directory, $key = 'name', $min_depth = 1) {
  global $profile;
  $config = conf_path();

  // When this function is called during Drupal's initial installation process,
  // the name of the profile that's about to be installed is stored in the global
  // $profile variable. At all other times, the standard Drupal systems variable
  // table contains the name of the current profile, and we can call variable_get()
  // to determine what one is active.
  if (!isset($profile)) {
    $profile = variable_get('install_profile', 'default');
  }
  $searchdir = array(
    $directory,
  );
  $files = array();

  // Always search sites/all/* as well as the global directories
  $searchdir[] = 'sites/all/' . $directory;

  // The 'profiles' directory contains pristine collections of modules and
  // themes as organized by a distribution.  It is pristine in the same way
  // that /modules is pristine for core; users should avoid changing anything
  // there in favor of sites/all or sites/<domain> directories.
  if (file_exists("profiles/{$profile}/{$directory}")) {
    $searchdir[] = "profiles/{$profile}/{$directory}";
  }
  if (file_exists("{$config}/{$directory}")) {
    $searchdir[] = "{$config}/{$directory}";
  }

  // Get current list of items
  foreach ($searchdir as $dir) {
    $files = array_merge($files, file_scan_directory($dir, $mask, array(
      '.',
      '..',
      'CVS',
    ), 0, TRUE, $key, $min_depth));
  }
  return $files;
}

/**
 * Renders HTML given a structured array tree. Recursively iterates over each
 * of the array elements, generating HTML code. This function is usually
 * called from within a another function, like drupal_get_form() or node_view().
 *
 * @param $elements
 *   The structured array describing the data to be rendered.
 * @return
 *   The rendered HTML.
 */
function drupal_render(&$elements) {
  if (!isset($elements) || isset($elements['#access']) && !$elements['#access']) {
    return NULL;
  }
  $content = '';

  // Either the elements did not go through form_builder or one of the children
  // has a #weight.
  if (!isset($elements['#sorted'])) {
    uasort($elements, "_element_sort");
  }
  if (!isset($elements['#children'])) {
    $children = element_children($elements);

    /* Render all the children that use a theme function */
    if (isset($elements['#theme']) && empty($elements['#theme_used'])) {
      $elements['#theme_used'] = TRUE;
      $previous = array();
      foreach (array(
        '#value',
        '#type',
        '#prefix',
        '#suffix',
      ) as $key) {
        $previous[$key] = isset($elements[$key]) ? $elements[$key] : NULL;
      }

      // If we rendered a single element, then we will skip the renderer.
      if (empty($children)) {
        $elements['#printed'] = TRUE;
      }
      else {
        $elements['#value'] = '';
      }
      $elements['#type'] = 'markup';
      unset($elements['#prefix'], $elements['#suffix']);
      $content = theme($elements['#theme'], $elements);
      foreach (array(
        '#value',
        '#type',
        '#prefix',
        '#suffix',
      ) as $key) {
        $elements[$key] = isset($previous[$key]) ? $previous[$key] : NULL;
      }
    }

    /* render each of the children using drupal_render and concatenate them */
    if (!isset($content) || $content === '') {
      foreach ($children as $key) {
        $content .= drupal_render($elements[$key]);
      }
    }
  }
  if (isset($content) && $content !== '') {
    $elements['#children'] = $content;
  }

  // Until now, we rendered the children, here we render the element itself
  if (!isset($elements['#printed'])) {
    $content = theme(!empty($elements['#type']) ? $elements['#type'] : 'markup', $elements);
    $elements['#printed'] = TRUE;
  }
  if (isset($content) && $content !== '') {
    $prefix = isset($elements['#prefix']) ? $elements['#prefix'] : '';
    $suffix = isset($elements['#suffix']) ? $elements['#suffix'] : '';
    return $prefix . $content . $suffix;
  }
}

/**
 * Function used by uasort in drupal_render() to sort structured arrays
 * by weight.
 */
function _element_sort($a, $b) {
  $a_weight = is_array($a) && isset($a['#weight']) ? $a['#weight'] : 0;
  $b_weight = is_array($b) && isset($b['#weight']) ? $b['#weight'] : 0;
  if ($a_weight == $b_weight) {
    return 0;
  }
  return $a_weight < $b_weight ? -1 : 1;
}

/**
 * Check if the key is a property.
 */
function element_property($key) {
  return $key[0] == '#';
}

/**
 * Get properties of a structured array element. Properties begin with '#'.
 */
function element_properties($element) {
  return array_filter(array_keys((array) $element), 'element_property');
}

/**
 * Check if the key is a child.
 */
function element_child($key) {
  return $key[0] != '#';
}

/**
 * Get keys of a structured array tree element that are not properties
 * (i.e., do not begin with '#').
 */
function element_children($element) {
  return array_filter(array_keys((array) $element), 'element_child');
}

Functions

Namesort descending Description
base_path Returns the base URL path of the Drupal installation. At the very least, this will always default to /.
check_file
check_url Prepare a URL for use in an HTML attribute. Strips harmful protocols.
drupal_access_denied Generates a 403 error if the request is not allowed.
drupal_add_css Adds a CSS file to the stylesheet queue.
drupal_add_feed Add a feed URL for the current page.
drupal_add_js Add a JavaScript file, setting or inline code to the page.
drupal_add_link Add a <link> tag to the page's HEAD.
drupal_attributes Format an attribute string to insert in a tag.
drupal_build_css_cache Aggregate and optimize CSS files, putting them in the files directory.
drupal_clear_css_cache Delete all cached CSS files.
drupal_clear_path_cache Reset the static variable which holds the aliases mapped for this request.
drupal_clone Provide a substitute clone() function for PHP4.
drupal_cron_cleanup Shutdown function for cron cleanup.
drupal_cron_run Executes a cron run when called
drupal_eval Evaluate a string of PHP code.
drupal_final_markup Make any final alterations to the rendered xhtml.
drupal_get_breadcrumb Get the breadcrumb trail for the current page.
drupal_get_content Get assigned content.
drupal_get_css Returns a themed representation of all stylesheets that should be attached to the page. It loads the CSS in order, with 'core' CSS first, then 'module' CSS, then 'theme' CSS files. This ensures proper cascading of styles…
drupal_get_destination Prepare a destination query string for use in combination with drupal_goto(). Used to direct the user back to the referring page after completing a form. By default the current URL is returned. If a destination exists in the previous request, that…
drupal_get_feeds Get the feed URLs for the current page.
drupal_get_headers Get the HTTP response headers for the current page.
drupal_get_html_head Retrieve output to be displayed in the head tag of the HTML page.
drupal_get_js Returns a themed presentation of all JavaScript code for the current page. References to JavaScript files are placed in a certain order: first, all 'core' files, then all 'module' and finally all 'theme' JavaScript…
drupal_get_path Returns the path to a system item (module, theme, etc.).
drupal_get_private_key Ensure the private key variable used to generate tokens is set.
drupal_get_token Generate a token based on $value, the current user session and private key.
drupal_goto Send the user to a different Drupal page.
drupal_http_request Perform an HTTP request.
drupal_mail Send an e-mail message, using Drupal variables and default settings. More information in the PHP function reference for mail()
drupal_map_assoc Form an associative array from a linear array.
drupal_not_found Generates a 404 error if the request can not be handled.
drupal_page_footer Perform end-of-request tasks.
drupal_query_string_encode Parse an array into a valid urlencoded query string.
drupal_render Renders HTML given a structured array tree. Recursively iterates over each of the array elements, generating HTML code. This function is usually called from within a another function, like drupal_get_form() or node_view().
drupal_set_breadcrumb Set the breadcrumb trail for the current page.
drupal_set_content Set content for a specified region.
drupal_set_header Set an HTTP response header for the current page.
drupal_set_html_head Add output to the head tag of the HTML page. This function can be called as long the headers aren't sent.
drupal_site_offline Generates a site off-line message
drupal_system_listing Returns an array of files objects of the given type from the site-wide directory (i.e. modules/), the all-sites directory (i.e. sites/all/modules/), the profiles directory, and site-specific directory (i.e. sites/somesite/modules/). The returned array…
drupal_to_js Converts a PHP variable into its Javascript equivalent.
drupal_urlencode Wrapper around urlencode() which avoids Apache quirks.
drupal_valid_token Validate a token based on $value, the current user session and private key.
element_child Check if the key is a child.
element_children Get keys of a structured array tree element that are not properties (i.e., do not begin with '#').
element_properties Get properties of a structured array element. Properties begin with '#'.
element_property Check if the key is a property.
error_handler Log errors as defined by administrator Error levels: 0 = Log errors to database. 1 = Log errors to database and to screen.
fix_gpc_magic Correct double-escaping problems caused by "magic quotes" in some PHP installations.
flood_is_allowed Check if the current visitor (hostname/IP) is allowed to proceed with the specified event. The user is allowed to proceed if he did not trigger the specified event more than $threshold times per hour.
flood_register_event Register an event for the current visitor (hostname/IP) to the flood control mechanism.
format_date Format a date with the given configured format or a custom format string.
format_interval Format a time interval with the requested granularity.
format_plural Format a string containing a count of items.
format_rss_channel Formats an RSS channel.
format_rss_item Format a single RSS item.
format_size Generate a string representation for the given byte count.
format_xml_elements Format XML elements.
l Format an internal Drupal link.
locale_initialize Initialize the localization system.
page_set_cache Store the current page in the cache.
parse_size Parse a given byte count.
t Translate strings to the current locale.
url Generate a URL from a Drupal menu path. Will also pass-through existing URLs.
valid_email_address Verify the syntax of the given e-mail address.
valid_url Verify the syntax of the given URL.
xmlrpc Performs one or more XML-RPC request(s).
_drupal_add_js Helper function for drupal_add_js().
_drupal_bootstrap_full
_element_sort Function used by uasort in drupal_render() to sort structured arrays by weight.
_fix_gpc_magic
_fix_gpc_magic_files Helper function to strip slashes from $_FILES skipping over the tmp_name keys since PHP generates single backslashes for file paths on Windows systems.

Constants

Namesort descending Description
SAVED_DELETED Return status for saving which deleted an existing item.
SAVED_NEW Return status for saving which involved creating a new item.
SAVED_UPDATED Return status for saving which involved an update to an existing item.