class MergeQuery

You are here

General class for an abstracted MERGE query operation.

An ANSI SQL:2003 compatible database would run the following query:

MERGE INTO table_name_1 USING table_name_2 ON (condition)
  WHEN MATCHED THEN
  UPDATE SET column1 = value1 [, column2 = value2 ...]
  WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN
  INSERT (column1 [, column2 ...]) VALUES (value1 [, value2 ...

Other databases (most notably MySQL, PostgreSQL and SQLite) will emulate this statement by running a SELECT and then INSERT or UPDATE.

By default, the two table names are identical and they are passed into the the constructor. table_name_2 can be specified by the MergeQuery::conditionTable() method. It can be either a string or a subquery.

The condition is built exactly like SelectQuery or UpdateQuery conditions, the UPDATE query part is built similarly like an UpdateQuery and finally the INSERT query part is built similarly like an InsertQuery. However, both UpdateQuery and InsertQuery has a fields method so MergeQuery::updateFields() and MergeQuery::insertFields() needs to be called instead. MergeQuery::fields() can also be called which calls both of these methods as the common case is to use the same column-value pairs for both INSERT and UPDATE. However, this is not mandatory. Another convinient wrapper is MergeQuery::key() which adds the same column-value pairs to the condition and the INSERT query part.

Several methods (key(), fields(), insertFields()) can be called to set a key-value pair for the INSERT query part. Subsequent calls for the same fields override the earlier ones. The same is true for UPDATE and key(), fields() and updateFields().

Hierarchy

Expanded class hierarchy of MergeQuery

Members

Contains filters are case sensitive
Namesort descending Modifiers Type Description
MergeQuery::$conditionTable protected property The table or subquery to be used for the condition.
MergeQuery::$defaultFields protected property An array of fields which should be set to their database-defined defaults.
MergeQuery::$expressionFields protected property Array of fields to update to an expression in case of a duplicate record.
MergeQuery::$insertFields protected property An array of fields on which to insert.
MergeQuery::$insertValues protected property An array of values to be inserted.
MergeQuery::$needsUpdate protected property Flag indicating whether an UPDATE is necessary.
MergeQuery::$table protected property The table to be used for INSERT and UPDATE.
MergeQuery::$updateFields protected property An array of fields that will be updated.
MergeQuery::arguments public function Implements QueryConditionInterface::arguments(). Overrides QueryConditionInterface::arguments
MergeQuery::compile public function Implements QueryConditionInterface::compile(). Overrides QueryConditionInterface::compile
MergeQuery::compiled public function Implements QueryConditionInterface::compiled(). Overrides QueryConditionInterface::compiled
MergeQuery::condition public function Implements QueryConditionInterface::condition(). Overrides QueryConditionInterface::condition
MergeQuery::conditions public function Implements QueryConditionInterface::conditions(). Overrides QueryConditionInterface::conditions
MergeQuery::conditionTable protected function Sets the table or subquery to be used for the condition.
MergeQuery::execute public function Runs the query against the database. Overrides Query::execute
MergeQuery::exists public function Implements QueryConditionInterface::exists(). Overrides QueryConditionInterface::exists
MergeQuery::expression public function Specifies fields to be updated as an expression.
MergeQuery::fields public function Sets common field-value pairs in the INSERT and UPDATE query parts.
MergeQuery::insertFields public function Adds a set of field->value pairs to be inserted.
MergeQuery::isNotNull public function Implements QueryConditionInterface::isNotNull(). Overrides QueryConditionInterface::isNotNull
MergeQuery::isNull public function Implements QueryConditionInterface::isNull(). Overrides QueryConditionInterface::isNull
MergeQuery::key public function Sets the key field(s) to be used as conditions for this query.
MergeQuery::notExists public function Implements QueryConditionInterface::notExists(). Overrides QueryConditionInterface::notExists
MergeQuery::STATUS_INSERT constant Returned by execute() if an INSERT query has been executed.
MergeQuery::STATUS_UPDATE constant Returned by execute() if an UPDATE query has been executed.
MergeQuery::updateFields public function Adds a set of field->value pairs to be updated.
MergeQuery::useDefaults public function Specifies fields for which the database-defaults should be used.
MergeQuery::where public function Implements QueryConditionInterface::where(). Overrides QueryConditionInterface::where
MergeQuery::__construct public function Constructs a MergeQuery object. Overrides Query::__construct
MergeQuery::__toString public function Implements PHP magic __toString method to convert the query to a string. Overrides Query::__toString
Query::$comments protected property An array of comments that can be prepended to a query.
Query::$connection protected property The connection object on which to run this query.
Query::$connectionKey protected property The key of the connection object.
Query::$connectionTarget protected property The target of the connection object.
Query::$nextPlaceholder protected property The placeholder counter.
Query::$queryOptions protected property The query options to pass on to the connection object.
Query::$uniqueIdentifier protected property A unique identifier for this query object.
Query::comment public function Adds a comment to the query.
Query::getComments public function Returns a reference to the comments array for the query.
Query::nextPlaceholder public function Gets the next placeholder value for this query object. Overrides QueryPlaceholderInterface::nextPlaceholder
Query::uniqueIdentifier public function Returns a unique identifier for this object. Overrides QueryPlaceholderInterface::uniqueIdentifier
Query::__clone public function Implements the magic __clone function.
Query::__sleep public function Implements the magic __sleep function to disconnect from the database.
Query::__wakeup public function Implements the magic __wakeup function to reconnect to the database.

File

includes/database/query.inc, line 1254
Non-specific Database query code. Used by all engines.

View source
class MergeQuery extends Query implements QueryConditionInterface {
  /**
   * Returned by execute() if an INSERT query has been executed.
   */
  const STATUS_INSERT = 1;

  /**
   * Returned by execute() if an UPDATE query has been executed.
   */
  const STATUS_UPDATE = 2;

  /**
   * The table to be used for INSERT and UPDATE.
   *
   * @var string
   */
  protected $table;

  /**
   * The table or subquery to be used for the condition.
   */
  protected $conditionTable;

  /**
   * An array of fields on which to insert.
   *
   * @var array
   */
  protected $insertFields = array();

  /**
   * An array of fields which should be set to their database-defined defaults.
   *
   * Used on INSERT.
   *
   * @var array
   */
  protected $defaultFields = array();

  /**
   * An array of values to be inserted.
   *
   * @var string
   */
  protected $insertValues = array();

  /**
   * An array of fields that will be updated.
   *
   * @var array
   */
  protected $updateFields = array();

  /**
   * Array of fields to update to an expression in case of a duplicate record.
   *
   * This variable is a nested array in the following format:
   * @code
   * <some field> => array(
   *  'condition' => <condition to execute, as a string>,
   *  'arguments' => <array of arguments for condition, or NULL for none>,
   * );
   * @endcode
   *
   * @var array
   */
  protected $expressionFields = array();

  /**
   * Flag indicating whether an UPDATE is necessary.
   *
   * @var boolean
   */
  protected $needsUpdate = FALSE;

  /**
   * Constructs a MergeQuery object.
   *
   * @param DatabaseConnection $connection
   *   A DatabaseConnection object.
   * @param string $table
   *   Name of the table to associate with this query.
   * @param array $options
   *   Array of database options.
   */
  public function __construct(DatabaseConnection $connection, $table, array $options = array()) {
    $options['return'] = Database::RETURN_AFFECTED;
    parent::__construct($connection, $options);
    $this->table = $table;
    $this->conditionTable = $table;
    $this->condition = new DatabaseCondition('AND');
  }

  /**
   * Sets the table or subquery to be used for the condition.
   *
   * @param $table
   *   The table name or the subquery to be used. Use a SelectQuery object to
   *   pass in a subquery.
   *
   * @return MergeQuery
   *   The called object.
   */
  protected function conditionTable($table) {
    $this->conditionTable = $table;
    return $this;
  }

  /**
   * Adds a set of field->value pairs to be updated.
   *
   * @param $fields
   *   An associative array of fields to write into the database. The array keys
   *   are the field names and the values are the values to which to set them.
   *
   * @return MergeQuery
   *   The called object.
   */
  public function updateFields(array $fields) {
    $this->updateFields = $fields;
    $this->needsUpdate = TRUE;
    return $this;
  }

  /**
   * Specifies fields to be updated as an expression.
   *
   * Expression fields are cases such as counter = counter + 1. This method
   * takes precedence over MergeQuery::updateFields() and it's wrappers,
   * MergeQuery::key() and MergeQuery::fields().
   *
   * @param $field
   *   The field to set.
   * @param $expression
   *   The field will be set to the value of this expression. This parameter
   *   may include named placeholders.
   * @param $arguments
   *   If specified, this is an array of key/value pairs for named placeholders
   *   corresponding to the expression.
   *
   * @return MergeQuery
   *   The called object.
   */
  public function expression($field, $expression, array $arguments = NULL) {
    $this->expressionFields[$field] = array(
      'expression' => $expression,
      'arguments' => $arguments,
    );
    $this->needsUpdate = TRUE;
    return $this;
  }

  /**
   * Adds a set of field->value pairs to be inserted.
   *
   * @param $fields
   *   An array of fields on which to insert. This array may be indexed or
   *   associative. If indexed, the array is taken to be the list of fields.
   *   If associative, the keys of the array are taken to be the fields and
   *   the values are taken to be corresponding values to insert. If a
   *   $values argument is provided, $fields must be indexed.
   * @param $values
   *   An array of fields to insert into the database. The values must be
   *   specified in the same order as the $fields array.
   *
   * @return MergeQuery
   *   The called object.
   */
  public function insertFields(array $fields, array $values = array()) {
    if ($values) {
      $fields = array_combine($fields, $values);
    }
    $this->insertFields = $fields;
    return $this;
  }

  /**
   * Specifies fields for which the database-defaults should be used.
   *
   * If you want to force a given field to use the database-defined default,
   * not NULL or undefined, use this method to instruct the database to use
   * default values explicitly. In most cases this will not be necessary
   * unless you are inserting a row that is all default values, as you cannot
   * specify no values in an INSERT query.
   *
   * Specifying a field both in fields() and in useDefaults() is an error
   * and will not execute.
   *
   * @param $fields
   *   An array of values for which to use the default values
   *   specified in the table definition.
   *
   * @return MergeQuery
   *   The called object.
   */
  public function useDefaults(array $fields) {
    $this->defaultFields = $fields;
    return $this;
  }

  /**
   * Sets common field-value pairs in the INSERT and UPDATE query parts.
   *
   * This method should only be called once. It may be called either
   * with a single associative array or two indexed arrays. If called
   * with an associative array, the keys are taken to be the fields
   * and the values are taken to be the corresponding values to set.
   * If called with two arrays, the first array is taken as the fields
   * and the second array is taken as the corresponding values.
   *
   * @param $fields
   *   An array of fields to insert, or an associative array of fields and
   *   values. The keys of the array are taken to be the fields and the values
   *   are taken to be corresponding values to insert.
   * @param $values
   *   An array of values to set into the database. The values must be
   *   specified in the same order as the $fields array.
   *
   * @return MergeQuery
   *   The called object.
   */
  public function fields(array $fields, array $values = array()) {
    if ($values) {
      $fields = array_combine($fields, $values);
    }
    foreach ($fields as $key => $value) {
      $this->insertFields[$key] = $value;
      $this->updateFields[$key] = $value;
    }
    $this->needsUpdate = TRUE;
    return $this;
  }

  /**
   * Sets the key field(s) to be used as conditions for this query.
   *
   * This method should only be called once. It may be called either
   * with a single associative array or two indexed arrays. If called
   * with an associative array, the keys are taken to be the fields
   * and the values are taken to be the corresponding values to set.
   * If called with two arrays, the first array is taken as the fields
   * and the second array is taken as the corresponding values.
   *
   * The fields are copied to the condition of the query and the INSERT part.
   * If no other method is called, the UPDATE will become a no-op.
   *
   * @param $fields
   *   An array of fields to set, or an associative array of fields and values.
   * @param $values
   *   An array of values to set into the database. The values must be
   *   specified in the same order as the $fields array.
   *
   * @return MergeQuery
   *   The called object.
   */
  public function key(array $fields, array $values = array()) {
    if ($values) {
      $fields = array_combine($fields, $values);
    }
    foreach ($fields as $key => $value) {
      $this->insertFields[$key] = $value;
      $this->condition($key, $value);
    }
    return $this;
  }

  /**
   * Implements QueryConditionInterface::condition().
   */
  public function condition($field, $value = NULL, $operator = NULL) {
    $this->condition->condition($field, $value, $operator);
    return $this;
  }

  /**
   * Implements QueryConditionInterface::isNull().
   */
  public function isNull($field) {
    $this->condition->isNull($field);
    return $this;
  }

  /**
   * Implements QueryConditionInterface::isNotNull().
   */
  public function isNotNull($field) {
    $this->condition->isNotNull($field);
    return $this;
  }

  /**
   * Implements QueryConditionInterface::exists().
   */
  public function exists(SelectQueryInterface $select) {
    $this->condition->exists($select);
    return $this;
  }

  /**
   * Implements QueryConditionInterface::notExists().
   */
  public function notExists(SelectQueryInterface $select) {
    $this->condition->notExists($select);
    return $this;
  }

  /**
   * Implements QueryConditionInterface::conditions().
   */
  public function &conditions() {
    return $this->condition->conditions();
  }

  /**
   * Implements QueryConditionInterface::arguments().
   */
  public function arguments() {
    return $this->condition->arguments();
  }

  /**
   * Implements QueryConditionInterface::where().
   */
  public function where($snippet, $args = array()) {
    $this->condition->where($snippet, $args);
    return $this;
  }

  /**
   * Implements QueryConditionInterface::compile().
   */
  public function compile(DatabaseConnection $connection, QueryPlaceholderInterface $queryPlaceholder) {
    return $this->condition->compile($connection, $queryPlaceholder);
  }

  /**
   * Implements QueryConditionInterface::compiled().
   */
  public function compiled() {
    return $this->condition->compiled();
  }

  /**
   * Implements PHP magic __toString method to convert the query to a string.
   *
   * In the degenerate case, there is no string-able query as this operation
   * is potentially two queries.
   *
   * @return string
   *   The prepared query statement.
   */
  public function __toString() {
  }

  public function execute() {
    if (!count($this->condition)) {
      throw new InvalidMergeQueryException(t('Invalid merge query: no conditions'));
    }
    $select = $this->connection->select($this->conditionTable)->condition($this->condition);
    $select->addExpression('1');
    if (!$select->execute()->fetchField()) {
      try {
        $insert = $this->connection->insert($this->table)->fields($this->insertFields);
        if ($this->defaultFields) {
          $insert->useDefaults($this->defaultFields);
        }
        $insert->execute();
        return self::STATUS_INSERT;
      }
      catch (Exception $e) {
        // The insert query failed, maybe it's because a racing insert query
        // beat us in inserting the same row. Retry the select query, if it
        // returns a row, ignore the error and continue with the update
        // query below.
        if (!$select->execute()->fetchField()) {
          throw $e;
        }
      }
    }
    if ($this->needsUpdate) {
      $update = $this->connection->update($this->table)->fields($this->updateFields)->condition($this->condition);
      if ($this->expressionFields) {
        foreach ($this->expressionFields as $field => $data) {
          $update->expression($field, $data['expression'], $data['arguments']);
        }
      }
      $update->execute();
      return self::STATUS_UPDATE;
    }
  }
}

Related topics

1 string reference to 'MergeQuery'
DatabaseConnection::merge in includes/database/database.inc
Prepares and returns a MERGE query object.

Comments

Merge should have been called UPSERT

$query->upsert($table_name, $array_fields, $array_data);

If $array_data is a multi dimensional array then execute for each inner array