1. 8.5.x core/includes/unicode.inc
  2. 8.0.x core/includes/unicode.inc
  3. 8.1.x core/includes/unicode.inc
  4. 8.2.x core/includes/unicode.inc
  5. 8.3.x core/includes/unicode.inc
  6. 8.4.x core/includes/unicode.inc
  7. 8.6.x core/includes/unicode.inc
  8. 4.7.x includes/unicode.inc
  9. 5.x includes/unicode.inc
  10. 6.x includes/unicode.inc
  11. 7.x includes/unicode.inc

Provides Unicode-related conversions and operations.

File

includes/unicode.inc
View source
<?php

/**
* @file
* Provides Unicode-related conversions and operations.
*/

/**
 * Indicates an error during check for PHP unicode support.
 */
define('UNICODE_ERROR', -1);

/**
 * Indicates that standard PHP (emulated) unicode support is being used.
 */
define('UNICODE_SINGLEBYTE', 0);

/**
 * Indicates that full unicode support with the PHP mbstring extension is being
 * used.
 */
define('UNICODE_MULTIBYTE', 1);

/**
 * Matches Unicode characters that are word boundaries.
 *
 * Characters with the following General_category (gc) property values are used
 * as word boundaries. While this does not fully conform to the Word Boundaries
 * algorithm described in http://unicode.org/reports/tr29, as PCRE does not
 * contain the Word_Break property table, this simpler algorithm has to do.
 * - Cc, Cf, Cn, Co, Cs: Other.
 * - Pc, Pd, Pe, Pf, Pi, Po, Ps: Punctuation.
 * - Sc, Sk, Sm, So: Symbols.
 * - Zl, Zp, Zs: Separators.
 *
 * Non-boundary characters include the following General_category (gc) property
 * values:
 * - Ll, Lm, Lo, Lt, Lu: Letters.
 * - Mc, Me, Mn: Combining Marks.
 * - Nd, Nl, No: Numbers.
 *
 * Note that the PCRE property matcher is not used because we wanted to be
 * compatible with Unicode 5.2.0 regardless of the PCRE version used (and any
 * bugs in PCRE property tables).
 *
 * @see http://unicode.org/glossary
 */
define('PREG_CLASS_UNICODE_WORD_BOUNDARY', '\\x{0}-\\x{2F}\\x{3A}-\\x{40}\\x{5B}-\\x{60}\\x{7B}-\\x{A9}\\x{AB}-\\x{B1}\\x{B4}' . '\\x{B6}-\\x{B8}\\x{BB}\\x{BF}\\x{D7}\\x{F7}\\x{2C2}-\\x{2C5}\\x{2D2}-\\x{2DF}' . '\\x{2E5}-\\x{2EB}\\x{2ED}\\x{2EF}-\\x{2FF}\\x{375}\\x{37E}-\\x{385}\\x{387}\\x{3F6}' . '\\x{482}\\x{55A}-\\x{55F}\\x{589}-\\x{58A}\\x{5BE}\\x{5C0}\\x{5C3}\\x{5C6}' . '\\x{5F3}-\\x{60F}\\x{61B}-\\x{61F}\\x{66A}-\\x{66D}\\x{6D4}\\x{6DD}\\x{6E9}' . '\\x{6FD}-\\x{6FE}\\x{700}-\\x{70F}\\x{7F6}-\\x{7F9}\\x{830}-\\x{83E}' . '\\x{964}-\\x{965}\\x{970}\\x{9F2}-\\x{9F3}\\x{9FA}-\\x{9FB}\\x{AF1}\\x{B70}' . '\\x{BF3}-\\x{BFA}\\x{C7F}\\x{CF1}-\\x{CF2}\\x{D79}\\x{DF4}\\x{E3F}\\x{E4F}' . '\\x{E5A}-\\x{E5B}\\x{F01}-\\x{F17}\\x{F1A}-\\x{F1F}\\x{F34}\\x{F36}\\x{F38}' . '\\x{F3A}-\\x{F3D}\\x{F85}\\x{FBE}-\\x{FC5}\\x{FC7}-\\x{FD8}\\x{104A}-\\x{104F}' . '\\x{109E}-\\x{109F}\\x{10FB}\\x{1360}-\\x{1368}\\x{1390}-\\x{1399}\\x{1400}' . '\\x{166D}-\\x{166E}\\x{1680}\\x{169B}-\\x{169C}\\x{16EB}-\\x{16ED}' . '\\x{1735}-\\x{1736}\\x{17B4}-\\x{17B5}\\x{17D4}-\\x{17D6}\\x{17D8}-\\x{17DB}' . '\\x{1800}-\\x{180A}\\x{180E}\\x{1940}-\\x{1945}\\x{19DE}-\\x{19FF}' . '\\x{1A1E}-\\x{1A1F}\\x{1AA0}-\\x{1AA6}\\x{1AA8}-\\x{1AAD}\\x{1B5A}-\\x{1B6A}' . '\\x{1B74}-\\x{1B7C}\\x{1C3B}-\\x{1C3F}\\x{1C7E}-\\x{1C7F}\\x{1CD3}\\x{1FBD}' . '\\x{1FBF}-\\x{1FC1}\\x{1FCD}-\\x{1FCF}\\x{1FDD}-\\x{1FDF}\\x{1FED}-\\x{1FEF}' . '\\x{1FFD}-\\x{206F}\\x{207A}-\\x{207E}\\x{208A}-\\x{208E}\\x{20A0}-\\x{20B8}' . '\\x{2100}-\\x{2101}\\x{2103}-\\x{2106}\\x{2108}-\\x{2109}\\x{2114}' . '\\x{2116}-\\x{2118}\\x{211E}-\\x{2123}\\x{2125}\\x{2127}\\x{2129}\\x{212E}' . '\\x{213A}-\\x{213B}\\x{2140}-\\x{2144}\\x{214A}-\\x{214D}\\x{214F}' . '\\x{2190}-\\x{244A}\\x{249C}-\\x{24E9}\\x{2500}-\\x{2775}\\x{2794}-\\x{2B59}' . '\\x{2CE5}-\\x{2CEA}\\x{2CF9}-\\x{2CFC}\\x{2CFE}-\\x{2CFF}\\x{2E00}-\\x{2E2E}' . '\\x{2E30}-\\x{3004}\\x{3008}-\\x{3020}\\x{3030}\\x{3036}-\\x{3037}' . '\\x{303D}-\\x{303F}\\x{309B}-\\x{309C}\\x{30A0}\\x{30FB}\\x{3190}-\\x{3191}' . '\\x{3196}-\\x{319F}\\x{31C0}-\\x{31E3}\\x{3200}-\\x{321E}\\x{322A}-\\x{3250}' . '\\x{3260}-\\x{327F}\\x{328A}-\\x{32B0}\\x{32C0}-\\x{33FF}\\x{4DC0}-\\x{4DFF}' . '\\x{A490}-\\x{A4C6}\\x{A4FE}-\\x{A4FF}\\x{A60D}-\\x{A60F}\\x{A673}\\x{A67E}' . '\\x{A6F2}-\\x{A716}\\x{A720}-\\x{A721}\\x{A789}-\\x{A78A}\\x{A828}-\\x{A82B}' . '\\x{A836}-\\x{A839}\\x{A874}-\\x{A877}\\x{A8CE}-\\x{A8CF}\\x{A8F8}-\\x{A8FA}' . '\\x{A92E}-\\x{A92F}\\x{A95F}\\x{A9C1}-\\x{A9CD}\\x{A9DE}-\\x{A9DF}' . '\\x{AA5C}-\\x{AA5F}\\x{AA77}-\\x{AA79}\\x{AADE}-\\x{AADF}\\x{ABEB}' . '\\x{E000}-\\x{F8FF}\\x{FB29}\\x{FD3E}-\\x{FD3F}\\x{FDFC}-\\x{FDFD}' . '\\x{FE10}-\\x{FE19}\\x{FE30}-\\x{FE6B}\\x{FEFF}-\\x{FF0F}\\x{FF1A}-\\x{FF20}' . '\\x{FF3B}-\\x{FF40}\\x{FF5B}-\\x{FF65}\\x{FFE0}-\\x{FFFD}');

/**
 * Wrapper around _unicode_check().
 */
function unicode_check() {
  list($GLOBALS['multibyte']) = _unicode_check();
}

/**
 * Perform checks about Unicode support in PHP, and set the right settings if
 * needed.
 *
 * Because Drupal needs to be able to handle text in various encodings, we do
 * not support mbstring function overloading. HTTP input/output conversion must
 * be disabled for similar reasons.
 *
 * @param $errors
 *   Whether to report any fatal errors with form_set_error().
 */
function _unicode_check() {

  // Ensure translations don't break during installation.
  $t = get_t();

  // Check for mbstring extension
  if (!function_exists('mb_strlen')) {
    return array(
      UNICODE_SINGLEBYTE,
      $t('Operations on Unicode strings are emulated on a best-effort basis. Install the <a href="@url">PHP mbstring extension</a> for improved Unicode support.', array(
        '@url' => 'http://www.php.net/mbstring',
      )),
    );
  }

  // Check mbstring configuration
  if (ini_get('mbstring.func_overload') != 0) {
    return array(
      UNICODE_ERROR,
      $t('Multibyte string function overloading in PHP is active and must be disabled. Check the php.ini <em>mbstring.func_overload</em> setting. Please refer to the <a href="@url">PHP mbstring documentation</a> for more information.', array(
        '@url' => 'http://www.php.net/mbstring',
      )),
    );
  }
  if (ini_get('mbstring.encoding_translation') != 0) {
    return array(
      UNICODE_ERROR,
      $t('Multibyte string input conversion in PHP is active and must be disabled. Check the php.ini <em>mbstring.encoding_translation</em> setting. Please refer to the <a href="@url">PHP mbstring documentation</a> for more information.', array(
        '@url' => 'http://www.php.net/mbstring',
      )),
    );
  }

  // mbstring.http_input and mbstring.http_output are deprecated and empty by
  // default in PHP 5.6.
  if (version_compare(PHP_VERSION, '5.6.0') == -1) {
    if (ini_get('mbstring.http_input') != 'pass') {
      return array(
        UNICODE_ERROR,
        $t('Multibyte string input conversion in PHP is active and must be disabled. Check the php.ini <em>mbstring.http_input</em> setting. Please refer to the <a href="@url">PHP mbstring documentation</a> for more information.', array(
          '@url' => 'http://www.php.net/mbstring',
        )),
      );
    }
    if (ini_get('mbstring.http_output') != 'pass') {
      return array(
        UNICODE_ERROR,
        $t('Multibyte string output conversion in PHP is active and must be disabled. Check the php.ini <em>mbstring.http_output</em> setting. Please refer to the <a href="@url">PHP mbstring documentation</a> for more information.', array(
          '@url' => 'http://www.php.net/mbstring',
        )),
      );
    }
  }

  // Set appropriate configuration
  mb_internal_encoding('utf-8');
  mb_language('uni');
  return array(
    UNICODE_MULTIBYTE,
    '',
  );
}

/**
 * Returns Unicode library status and errors.
 */
function unicode_requirements() {

  // Ensure translations don't break during installation.
  $t = get_t();
  $libraries = array(
    UNICODE_SINGLEBYTE => $t('Standard PHP'),
    UNICODE_MULTIBYTE => $t('PHP Mbstring Extension'),
    UNICODE_ERROR => $t('Error'),
  );
  $severities = array(
    UNICODE_SINGLEBYTE => REQUIREMENT_WARNING,
    UNICODE_MULTIBYTE => REQUIREMENT_OK,
    UNICODE_ERROR => REQUIREMENT_ERROR,
  );
  list($library, $description) = _unicode_check();
  $requirements['unicode'] = array(
    'title' => $t('Unicode library'),
    'value' => $libraries[$library],
  );
  if ($description) {
    $requirements['unicode']['description'] = $description;
  }
  $requirements['unicode']['severity'] = $severities[$library];
  return $requirements;
}

/**
 * Prepares a new XML parser.
 *
 * This is a wrapper around xml_parser_create() which extracts the encoding
 * from the XML data first and sets the output encoding to UTF-8. This function
 * should be used instead of xml_parser_create(), because PHP 4's XML parser
 * doesn't check the input encoding itself. "Starting from PHP 5, the input
 * encoding is automatically detected, so that the encoding parameter specifies
 * only the output encoding."
 *
 * This is also where unsupported encodings will be converted. Callers should
 * take this into account: $data might have been changed after the call.
 *
 * @param $data
 *   The XML data which will be parsed later.
 *
 * @return
 *   An XML parser object or FALSE on error.
 *
 * @ingroup php_wrappers
 */
function drupal_xml_parser_create(&$data) {

  // Default XML encoding is UTF-8
  $encoding = 'utf-8';
  $bom = FALSE;

  // Check for UTF-8 byte order mark (PHP5's XML parser doesn't handle it).
  if (!strncmp($data, "", 3)) {
    $bom = TRUE;
    $data = substr($data, 3);
  }

  // Check for an encoding declaration in the XML prolog if no BOM was found.
  if (!$bom && preg_match('/^<\\?xml[^>]+encoding="(.+?)"/', $data, $match)) {
    $encoding = $match[1];
  }

  // Unsupported encodings are converted here into UTF-8.
  $php_supported = array(
    'utf-8',
    'iso-8859-1',
    'us-ascii',
  );
  if (!in_array(strtolower($encoding), $php_supported)) {
    $out = drupal_convert_to_utf8($data, $encoding);
    if ($out !== FALSE) {
      $encoding = 'utf-8';
      $data = preg_replace('/^(<\\?xml[^>]+encoding)="(.+?)"/', '\\1="utf-8"', $out);
    }
    else {
      watchdog('php', 'Could not convert XML encoding %s to UTF-8.', array(
        '%s' => $encoding,
      ), WATCHDOG_WARNING);
      return FALSE;
    }
  }
  $xml_parser = xml_parser_create($encoding);
  xml_parser_set_option($xml_parser, XML_OPTION_TARGET_ENCODING, 'utf-8');
  return $xml_parser;
}

/**
 * Converts data to UTF-8.
 *
 * Requires the iconv, GNU recode or mbstring PHP extension.
 *
 * @param $data
 *   The data to be converted.
 * @param $encoding
 *   The encoding that the data is in.
 *
 * @return
 *   Converted data or FALSE.
 */
function drupal_convert_to_utf8($data, $encoding) {
  if (function_exists('iconv')) {
    $out = @iconv($encoding, 'utf-8', $data);
  }
  elseif (function_exists('mb_convert_encoding')) {
    $out = @mb_convert_encoding($data, 'utf-8', $encoding);
  }
  elseif (function_exists('recode_string')) {
    $out = @recode_string($encoding . '..utf-8', $data);
  }
  else {
    watchdog('php', 'Unsupported encoding %s. Please install iconv, GNU recode or mbstring for PHP.', array(
      '%s' => $encoding,
    ), WATCHDOG_ERROR);
    return FALSE;
  }
  return $out;
}

/**
 * Truncates a UTF-8-encoded string safely to a number of bytes.
 *
 * If the end position is in the middle of a UTF-8 sequence, it scans backwards
 * until the beginning of the byte sequence.
 *
 * Use this function whenever you want to chop off a string at an unsure
 * location. On the other hand, if you're sure that you're splitting on a
 * character boundary (e.g. after using strpos() or similar), you can safely
 * use substr() instead.
 *
 * @param $string
 *   The string to truncate.
 * @param $len
 *   An upper limit on the returned string length.
 *
 * @return
 *   The truncated string.
 */
function drupal_truncate_bytes($string, $len) {
  if (strlen($string) <= $len) {
    return $string;
  }
  if (ord($string[$len]) < 0x80 || ord($string[$len]) >= 0xc0) {
    return substr($string, 0, $len);
  }

  // Scan backwards to beginning of the byte sequence.
  while (--$len >= 0 && ord($string[$len]) >= 0x80 && ord($string[$len]) < 0xc0) {
  }
  return substr($string, 0, $len);
}

/**
 * Truncates a UTF-8-encoded string safely to a number of characters.
 *
 * @param $string
 *   The string to truncate.
 * @param $max_length
 *   An upper limit on the returned string length, including trailing ellipsis
 *   if $add_ellipsis is TRUE.
 * @param $wordsafe
 *   If TRUE, attempt to truncate on a word boundary. Word boundaries are
 *   spaces, punctuation, and Unicode characters used as word boundaries in
 *   non-Latin languages; see PREG_CLASS_UNICODE_WORD_BOUNDARY for more
 *   information. If a word boundary cannot be found that would make the length
 *   of the returned string fall within length guidelines (see parameters
 *   $max_length and $min_wordsafe_length), word boundaries are ignored.
 * @param $add_ellipsis
 *   If TRUE, add t('...') to the end of the truncated string (defaults to
 *   FALSE). The string length will still fall within $max_length.
 * @param $min_wordsafe_length
 *   If $wordsafe is TRUE, the minimum acceptable length for truncation (before
 *   adding an ellipsis, if $add_ellipsis is TRUE). Has no effect if $wordsafe
 *   is FALSE. This can be used to prevent having a very short resulting string
 *   that will not be understandable. For instance, if you are truncating the
 *   string "See myverylongurlexample.com for more information" to a word-safe
 *   return length of 20, the only available word boundary within 20 characters
 *   is after the word "See", which wouldn't leave a very informative string. If
 *   you had set $min_wordsafe_length to 10, though, the function would realise
 *   that "See" alone is too short, and would then just truncate ignoring word
 *   boundaries, giving you "See myverylongurl..." (assuming you had set
 *   $add_ellipses to TRUE).
 *
 * @return string
 *   The truncated string.
 */
function truncate_utf8($string, $max_length, $wordsafe = FALSE, $add_ellipsis = FALSE, $min_wordsafe_length = 1) {
  $ellipsis = '';
  $max_length = max($max_length, 0);
  $min_wordsafe_length = max($min_wordsafe_length, 0);
  if (drupal_strlen($string) <= $max_length) {

    // No truncation needed, so don't add ellipsis, just return.
    return $string;
  }
  if ($add_ellipsis) {

    // Truncate ellipsis in case $max_length is small.
    $ellipsis = drupal_substr(t('...'), 0, $max_length);
    $max_length -= drupal_strlen($ellipsis);
    $max_length = max($max_length, 0);
  }
  if ($max_length <= $min_wordsafe_length) {

    // Do not attempt word-safe if lengths are bad.
    $wordsafe = FALSE;
  }
  if ($wordsafe) {
    $matches = array();

    // Find the last word boundary, if there is one within $min_wordsafe_length
    // to $max_length characters. preg_match() is always greedy, so it will
    // find the longest string possible.
    $found = preg_match('/^(.{' . $min_wordsafe_length . ',' . $max_length . '})[' . PREG_CLASS_UNICODE_WORD_BOUNDARY . ']/u', $string, $matches);
    if ($found) {
      $string = $matches[1];
    }
    else {
      $string = drupal_substr($string, 0, $max_length);
    }
  }
  else {
    $string = drupal_substr($string, 0, $max_length);
  }
  if ($add_ellipsis) {
    $string .= $ellipsis;
  }
  return $string;
}

/**
 * Encodes MIME/HTTP header values that contain incorrectly encoded characters.
 *
 * For example, mime_header_encode('tést.txt') returns "=?UTF-8?B?dMOpc3QudHh0?=".
 *
 * See http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2047.txt for more information.
 *
 * Notes:
 * - Only encode strings that contain non-ASCII characters.
 * - We progressively cut-off a chunk with truncate_utf8(). This is to ensure
 *   each chunk starts and ends on a character boundary.
 * - Using \n as the chunk separator may cause problems on some systems and may
 *   have to be changed to \r\n or \r.
 *
 * @param $string
 *   The header to encode.
 *
 * @return string
 *   The mime-encoded header.
 *
 * @see mime_header_decode()
 */
function mime_header_encode($string) {
  if (preg_match('/[^\\x20-\\x7E]/', $string)) {
    $chunk_size = 47;

    // floor((75 - strlen("=?UTF-8?B??=")) * 0.75);
    $len = strlen($string);
    $output = '';
    while ($len > 0) {
      $chunk = drupal_truncate_bytes($string, $chunk_size);
      $output .= ' =?UTF-8?B?' . base64_encode($chunk) . "?=\n";
      $c = strlen($chunk);
      $string = substr($string, $c);
      $len -= $c;
    }
    return trim($output);
  }
  return $string;
}

/**
 * Decodes MIME/HTTP encoded header values.
 *
 * @param $header
 *   The header to decode.
 *
 * @return string
 *   The mime-decoded header.
 *
 * @see mime_header_encode()
 */
function mime_header_decode($header) {

  // First step: encoded chunks followed by other encoded chunks (need to collapse whitespace)
  $header = preg_replace_callback('/=\\?([^?]+)\\?(Q|B)\\?([^?]+|\\?(?!=))\\?=\\s+(?==\\?)/', '_mime_header_decode', $header);

  // Second step: remaining chunks (do not collapse whitespace)
  return preg_replace_callback('/=\\?([^?]+)\\?(Q|B)\\?([^?]+|\\?(?!=))\\?=/', '_mime_header_decode', $header);
}

/**
 * Decodes encoded header data passed from mime_header_decode().
 *
 * Callback for preg_replace_callback() within mime_header_decode().
 *
 * @param $matches
 *   The array of matches from preg_replace_callback().
 *
 * @return string
 *   The mime-decoded string.
 *
 * @see mime_header_decode()
 */
function _mime_header_decode($matches) {

  // Regexp groups:
  // 1: Character set name
  // 2: Escaping method (Q or B)
  // 3: Encoded data
  $data = $matches[2] == 'B' ? base64_decode($matches[3]) : str_replace('_', ' ', quoted_printable_decode($matches[3]));
  if (strtolower($matches[1]) != 'utf-8') {
    $data = drupal_convert_to_utf8($data, $matches[1]);
  }
  return $data;
}

/**
 * Decodes all HTML entities (including numerical ones) to regular UTF-8 bytes.
 *
 * Double-escaped entities will only be decoded once ("&amp;lt;" becomes "&lt;"
 * , not "<"). Be careful when using this function, as decode_entities can
 * revert previous sanitization efforts (&lt;script&gt; will become <script>).
 *
 * @param $text
 *   The text to decode entities in.
 *
 * @return
 *   The input $text, with all HTML entities decoded once.
 */
function decode_entities($text) {
  return html_entity_decode($text, ENT_QUOTES, 'UTF-8');
}

/**
 * Counts the number of characters in a UTF-8 string.
 *
 * This is less than or equal to the byte count.
 *
 * @param $text
 *   The string to run the operation on.
 *
 * @return integer
 *   The length of the string.
 *
 * @ingroup php_wrappers
 */
function drupal_strlen($text) {
  global $multibyte;
  if ($multibyte == UNICODE_MULTIBYTE) {
    return mb_strlen($text);
  }
  else {

    // Do not count UTF-8 continuation bytes.
    return strlen(preg_replace("", '', $text));
  }
}

/**
 * Uppercase a UTF-8 string.
 *
 * @param $text
 *   The string to run the operation on.
 *
 * @return string
 *   The string in uppercase.
 *
 * @ingroup php_wrappers
 */
function drupal_strtoupper($text) {
  global $multibyte;
  if ($multibyte == UNICODE_MULTIBYTE) {
    return mb_strtoupper($text);
  }
  else {

    // Use C-locale for ASCII-only uppercase
    $text = strtoupper($text);

    // Case flip Latin-1 accented letters
    $text = preg_replace_callback('/\\xC3[\\xA0-\\xB6\\xB8-\\xBE]/', '_unicode_caseflip', $text);
    return $text;
  }
}

/**
 * Lowercase a UTF-8 string.
 *
 * @param $text
 *   The string to run the operation on.
 *
 * @return string
 *   The string in lowercase.
 *
 * @ingroup php_wrappers
 */
function drupal_strtolower($text) {
  global $multibyte;
  if ($multibyte == UNICODE_MULTIBYTE) {
    return mb_strtolower($text);
  }
  else {

    // Use C-locale for ASCII-only lowercase
    $text = strtolower($text);

    // Case flip Latin-1 accented letters
    $text = preg_replace_callback('/\\xC3[\\x80-\\x96\\x98-\\x9E]/', '_unicode_caseflip', $text);
    return $text;
  }
}

/**
 * Flips U+C0-U+DE to U+E0-U+FD and back.
 *
 * @param $matches
 *   An array of matches.
 *
 * @return array
 *   The Latin-1 version of the array of matches.
 *
 * @see drupal_strtolower()
 */
function _unicode_caseflip($matches) {
  return $matches[0][0] . chr(ord($matches[0][1]) ^ 32);
}

/**
 * Capitalizes the first letter of a UTF-8 string.
 *
 * @param $text
 *   The string to convert.
 *
 * @return
 *   The string with the first letter as uppercase.
 *
 * @ingroup php_wrappers
 */
function drupal_ucfirst($text) {

  // Note: no mbstring equivalent!
  return drupal_strtoupper(drupal_substr($text, 0, 1)) . drupal_substr($text, 1);
}

/**
 * Cuts off a piece of a string based on character indices and counts.
 *
 * Follows the same behavior as PHP's own substr() function. Note that for
 * cutting off a string at a known character/substring location, the usage of
 * PHP's normal strpos/substr is safe and much faster.
 *
 * @param $text
 *   The input string.
 * @param $start
 *   The position at which to start reading.
 * @param $length
 *   The number of characters to read.
 *
 * @return
 *   The shortened string.
 *
 * @ingroup php_wrappers
 */
function drupal_substr($text, $start, $length = NULL) {
  global $multibyte;
  if ($multibyte == UNICODE_MULTIBYTE) {
    return $length === NULL ? mb_substr($text, $start) : mb_substr($text, $start, $length);
  }
  else {
    $strlen = strlen($text);

    // Find the starting byte offset.
    $bytes = 0;
    if ($start > 0) {

      // Count all the continuation bytes from the start until we have found
      // $start characters or the end of the string.
      $bytes = -1;
      $chars = -1;
      while ($bytes < $strlen - 1 && $chars < $start) {
        $bytes++;
        $c = ord($text[$bytes]);
        if ($c < 0x80 || $c >= 0xc0) {
          $chars++;
        }
      }
    }
    elseif ($start < 0) {

      // Count all the continuation bytes from the end until we have found
      // abs($start) characters.
      $start = abs($start);
      $bytes = $strlen;
      $chars = 0;
      while ($bytes > 0 && $chars < $start) {
        $bytes--;
        $c = ord($text[$bytes]);
        if ($c < 0x80 || $c >= 0xc0) {
          $chars++;
        }
      }
    }
    $istart = $bytes;

    // Find the ending byte offset.
    if ($length === NULL) {
      $iend = $strlen;
    }
    elseif ($length > 0) {

      // Count all the continuation bytes from the starting index until we have
      // found $length characters or reached the end of the string, then
      // backtrace one byte.
      $iend = $istart - 1;
      $chars = -1;
      $last_real = FALSE;
      while ($iend < $strlen - 1 && $chars < $length) {
        $iend++;
        $c = ord($text[$iend]);
        $last_real = FALSE;
        if ($c < 0x80 || $c >= 0xc0) {
          $chars++;
          $last_real = TRUE;
        }
      }

      // Backtrace one byte if the last character we found was a real character
      // and we don't need it.
      if ($last_real && $chars >= $length) {
        $iend--;
      }
    }
    elseif ($length < 0) {

      // Count all the continuation bytes from the end until we have found
      // abs($start) characters, then backtrace one byte.
      $length = abs($length);
      $iend = $strlen;
      $chars = 0;
      while ($iend > 0 && $chars < $length) {
        $iend--;
        $c = ord($text[$iend]);
        if ($c < 0x80 || $c >= 0xc0) {
          $chars++;
        }
      }

      // Backtrace one byte if we are not at the beginning of the string.
      if ($iend > 0) {
        $iend--;
      }
    }
    else {

      // $length == 0, return an empty string.
      return '';
    }
    return substr($text, $istart, max(0, $iend - $istart + 1));
  }
}

Functions

Namesort descending Description
decode_entities Decodes all HTML entities (including numerical ones) to regular UTF-8 bytes.
drupal_convert_to_utf8 Converts data to UTF-8.
drupal_strlen Counts the number of characters in a UTF-8 string.
drupal_strtolower Lowercase a UTF-8 string.
drupal_strtoupper Uppercase a UTF-8 string.
drupal_substr Cuts off a piece of a string based on character indices and counts.
drupal_truncate_bytes Truncates a UTF-8-encoded string safely to a number of bytes.
drupal_ucfirst Capitalizes the first letter of a UTF-8 string.
drupal_xml_parser_create Prepares a new XML parser.
mime_header_decode Decodes MIME/HTTP encoded header values.
mime_header_encode Encodes MIME/HTTP header values that contain incorrectly encoded characters.
truncate_utf8 Truncates a UTF-8-encoded string safely to a number of characters.
unicode_check Wrapper around _unicode_check().
unicode_requirements Returns Unicode library status and errors.
_mime_header_decode Decodes encoded header data passed from mime_header_decode().
_unicode_caseflip Flips U+C0-U+DE to U+E0-U+FD and back.
_unicode_check Perform checks about Unicode support in PHP, and set the right settings if needed.

Constants

Namesort descending Description
PREG_CLASS_UNICODE_WORD_BOUNDARY Matches Unicode characters that are word boundaries.
UNICODE_ERROR Indicates an error during check for PHP unicode support.
UNICODE_MULTIBYTE Indicates that full unicode support with the PHP mbstring extension is being used.
UNICODE_SINGLEBYTE Indicates that standard PHP (emulated) unicode support is being used.