4.7.x common.inc drupal_add_js($file, $nocache = FALSE)
5.x common.inc drupal_add_js($data = NULL, $type = 'module', $scope = 'header', $defer = FALSE, $cache = TRUE)
6.x common.inc drupal_add_js($data = NULL, $type = 'module', $scope = 'header', $defer = FALSE, $cache = TRUE, $preprocess = TRUE)
7.x common.inc drupal_add_js($data = NULL, $options = NULL)

Adds a JavaScript file, setting, or inline code to the page.

The behavior of this function depends on the parameters it is called with. Generally, it handles the addition of JavaScript to the page, either as reference to an existing file or as inline code. The following actions can be performed using this function:

  • Add a file ('file'): Adds a reference to a JavaScript file to the page.
  • Add inline JavaScript code ('inline'): Executes a piece of JavaScript code on the current page by placing the code directly in the page (for example, to tell the user that a new message arrived, by opening a pop up, alert box, etc.). This should only be used for JavaScript that cannot be executed from a file. When adding inline code, make sure that you are not relying on $() being the jQuery function. Wrap your code in
 (function ($) {... })(jQuery); 

or use jQuery() instead of $().

  • Add external JavaScript ('external'): Allows the inclusion of external JavaScript files that are not hosted on the local server. Note that these external JavaScript references do not get aggregated when preprocessing is on.
  • Add settings ('setting'): Adds settings to Drupal's global storage of JavaScript settings. Per-page settings are required by some modules to function properly. All settings will be accessible at Drupal.settings.


drupal_add_js('misc/collapse.js', 'file');
drupal_add_js('jQuery(document).ready(function () { alert("Hello!"); });', 'inline');
drupal_add_js('jQuery(document).ready(function () { alert("Hello!"); });', array(
  'type' => 'inline',
  'scope' => 'footer',
  'weight' => 5,
drupal_add_js('http://example.com/example.js', 'external');
  'myModule' => array(
    'key' => 'value',
), 'setting');

Calling drupal_static_reset('drupal_add_js') will clear all JavaScript added so far.

If JavaScript aggregation is enabled, all JavaScript files added with $options['preprocess'] set to TRUE will be merged into one aggregate file. Preprocessed inline JavaScript will not be aggregated into this single file. Externally hosted JavaScripts are never aggregated.

The reason for aggregating the files is outlined quite thoroughly here: http://www.die.net/musings/page_load_time/ "Load fewer external objects. Due to request overhead, one bigger file just loads faster than two smaller ones half its size."

$options['preprocess'] should be only set to TRUE when a file is required for all typical visitors and most pages of a site. It is critical that all preprocessed files are added unconditionally on every page, even if the files are not needed on a page. This is normally done by calling drupal_add_js() in a hook_init() implementation.

Non-preprocessed files should only be added to the page when they are actually needed.


$data: (optional) If given, the value depends on the $options parameter, or $options['type'] if $options is passed as an associative array:

  • 'file': Path to the file relative to base_path().
  • 'inline': The JavaScript code that should be placed in the given scope.
  • 'external': The absolute path to an external JavaScript file that is not hosted on the local server. These files will not be aggregated if JavaScript aggregation is enabled.
  • 'setting': An associative array with configuration options. The array is merged directly into Drupal.settings. All modules should wrap their actual configuration settings in another variable to prevent conflicts in the Drupal.settings namespace. Items added with a string key will replace existing settings with that key; items with numeric array keys will be added to the existing settings array.

$options: (optional) A string defining the type of JavaScript that is being added in the $data parameter ('file'/'setting'/'inline'/'external'), or an associative array. JavaScript settings should always pass the string 'setting' only. Other types can have the following elements in the array:

  • type: The type of JavaScript that is to be added to the page. Allowed values are 'file', 'inline', 'external' or 'setting'. Defaults to 'file'.
  • scope: The location in which you want to place the script. Possible values are 'header' or 'footer'. If your theme implements different regions, you can also use these. Defaults to 'header'.
  • group: A number identifying the group in which to add the JavaScript. Available constants are:

    The group number serves as a weight: JavaScript within a lower weight group is presented on the page before JavaScript within a higher weight group.

  • every_page: For optimal front-end performance when aggregation is enabled, this should be set to TRUE if the JavaScript is present on every page of the website for users for whom it is present at all. This defaults to FALSE. It is set to TRUE for JavaScript files that are added via module and theme .info files. Modules that add JavaScript within hook_init() implementations, or from other code that ensures that the JavaScript is added to all website pages, should also set this flag to TRUE. All JavaScript files within the same group and that have the 'every_page' flag set to TRUE and do not have 'preprocess' set to FALSE are aggregated together into a single aggregate file, and that aggregate file can be reused across a user's entire site visit, leading to faster navigation between pages. However, JavaScript that is only needed on pages less frequently visited, can be added by code that only runs for those particular pages, and that code should not set the 'every_page' flag. This minimizes the size of the aggregate file that the user needs to download when first visiting the website. JavaScript without the 'every_page' flag is aggregated into a separate aggregate file. This other aggregate file is likely to change from page to page, and each new aggregate file needs to be downloaded when first encountered, so it should be kept relatively small by ensuring that most commonly needed JavaScript is added to every page.
  • weight: A number defining the order in which the JavaScript is added to the page relative to other JavaScript with the same 'scope', 'group', and 'every_page' value. In some cases, the order in which the JavaScript is presented on the page is very important. jQuery, for example, must be added to the page before any jQuery code is run, so jquery.js uses the JS_LIBRARY group and a weight of -20, jquery.once.js (a library drupal.js depends on) uses the JS_LIBRARY group and a weight of -19, drupal.js uses the JS_LIBRARY group and a weight of -1, other libraries use the JS_LIBRARY group and a weight of 0 or higher, and all other scripts use one of the other group constants. The exact ordering of JavaScript is as follows:

    • First by scope, with 'header' first, 'footer' last, and any other scopes provided by a custom theme coming in between, as determined by the theme.
    • Then by group.
    • Then by the 'every_page' flag, with TRUE coming before FALSE.
    • Then by weight.
    • Then by the order in which the JavaScript was added. For example, all else being the same, JavaScript added by a call to drupal_add_js() that happened later in the page request gets added to the page after one for which drupal_add_js() happened earlier in the page request.
  • requires_jquery: Set this to FALSE if the JavaScript you are adding does not have a dependency on jQuery. Defaults to TRUE, except for JavaScript settings where it defaults to FALSE. This is used on sites that have the 'javascript_always_use_jquery' variable set to FALSE; on those sites, if all the JavaScript added to the page by drupal_add_js() does not have a dependency on jQuery, then for improved front-end performance Drupal will not add jQuery and related libraries and settings to the page.
  • defer: If set to TRUE, the defer attribute is set on the <script> tag. Defaults to FALSE.
  • cache: If set to FALSE, the JavaScript file is loaded anew on every page call; in other words, it is not cached. Used only when 'type' references a JavaScript file. Defaults to TRUE.
  • preprocess: If TRUE and JavaScript aggregation is enabled, the script file will be aggregated. Defaults to TRUE.

Return value

The current array of JavaScript files, settings, and in-line code, including Drupal defaults, anything previously added with calls to drupal_add_js(), and this function call's additions.

See also


50 calls to drupal_add_js()
ajax_forms_test_lazy_load_form_submit in modules/simpletest/tests/ajax_forms_test.module
Form submit handler: Adds JavaScript and CSS that wasn't on the original form.
ajax_render in includes/ajax.inc
Renders a commands array into JSON.
ajax_test_render in modules/simpletest/tests/ajax_test.module
Menu callback; Return an element suitable for use by ajax_deliver().
block-admin-display-form.tpl.php in modules/block/block-admin-display-form.tpl.php
Default theme implementation to configure blocks.
color.inc in themes/bartik/color/color.inc

... See full list

8 string references to 'drupal_add_js'
DrupalRenderTestCase::testDrupalRenderChildrenAttached in modules/simpletest/tests/common.test
Test #attached functionality in children elements.
JavaScriptTestCase::resetStaticVariables in modules/simpletest/tests/common.test
Resets static variables related to adding JavaScript to a page.
JavaScriptTestCase::setUp in modules/simpletest/tests/common.test
Sets up a Drupal site for running functional and integration tests.
JavaScriptTestCase::testAggregationOrder in modules/simpletest/tests/common.test
Tests JavaScript aggregation when files are added to a different scope.
JavaScriptTestCase::testReset in modules/simpletest/tests/common.test
Test to see if resetting the JavaScript empties the cache.

... See full list


includes/common.inc, line 4256
Common functions that many Drupal modules will need to reference.


function drupal_add_js($data = NULL, $options = NULL) {
  $javascript =& drupal_static(__FUNCTION__, array());
  $jquery_added =& drupal_static(__FUNCTION__ . ':jquery_added', FALSE);

  // If the $javascript variable has been reset with drupal_static_reset(),
  // jQuery and related files will have been removed from the list, so set the
  // variable back to FALSE to indicate they have not yet been added.
  if (empty($javascript)) {
    $jquery_added = FALSE;

  // Construct the options, taking the defaults into consideration.
  if (isset($options)) {
    if (!is_array($options)) {
      $options = array(
        'type' => $options,
  else {
    $options = array();
  if (isset($options['type']) && $options['type'] == 'setting') {
    $options += array(
      'requires_jquery' => FALSE,
  $options += drupal_js_defaults($data);

  // Preprocess can only be set if caching is enabled.
  $options['preprocess'] = $options['cache'] ? $options['preprocess'] : FALSE;

  // Tweak the weight so that files of the same weight are included in the
  // order of the calls to drupal_add_js().
  $options['weight'] += count($javascript) / 1000;
  if (isset($data)) {

    // Add jquery.js, drupal.js, and related files and settings if they have
    // not been added yet. However, if the 'javascript_always_use_jquery'
    // variable is set to FALSE (indicating that the site does not want jQuery
    // automatically added on all pages) then only add it if a file or setting
    // that requires jQuery is being added also.
    if (!$jquery_added && (variable_get('javascript_always_use_jquery', TRUE) || $options['requires_jquery'])) {
      $jquery_added = TRUE;

      // url() generates the prefix using hook_url_outbound_alter(). Instead of
      // running the hook_url_outbound_alter() again here, extract the prefix
      // from url().
      url('', array(
        'prefix' => &$prefix,
      $default_javascript = array(
        'settings' => array(
          'data' => array(
              'basePath' => base_path(),
              'pathPrefix' => empty($prefix) ? '' : $prefix,
          'type' => 'setting',
          'scope' => 'header',
          'group' => JS_LIBRARY,
          'every_page' => TRUE,
          'weight' => 0,
        'misc/drupal.js' => array(
          'data' => 'misc/drupal.js',
          'type' => 'file',
          'scope' => 'header',
          'group' => JS_LIBRARY,
          'every_page' => TRUE,
          'weight' => -1,
          'requires_jquery' => TRUE,
          'preprocess' => TRUE,
          'cache' => TRUE,
          'defer' => FALSE,
      $javascript = drupal_array_merge_deep($javascript, $default_javascript);

      // Register all required libraries.
      drupal_add_library('system', 'jquery', TRUE);
      drupal_add_library('system', 'jquery.once', TRUE);
    switch ($options['type']) {
      case 'setting':

        // All JavaScript settings are placed in the header of the page with
        // the library weight so that inline scripts appear afterwards.
        $javascript['settings']['data'][] = $data;
      case 'inline':
        $javascript[] = $options;

        // 'file' and 'external'
        // Local and external files must keep their name as the associative key
        // so the same JavaScript file is not added twice.
        $javascript[$options['data']] = $options;
  return $javascript;


ignasegovia’s picture

Having the ability to conditionally load js files depending on browser would help cross browser compatibility tremendously. add_js can be a little to stern to deal with and needs more flexibility.

mikeyjk’s picture

Just posting for reference, I doubt this will be of use to a post made 5 years ago.

If you are looking to achieve more flexibility (conditionally loading/adding JS based on a set of pre-conditions) then you could define a hook_menu entry pointing to a JS file which is actually generated from a template.

Then add this JS with drupal_add_js() when the pre-conditions are met, perhaps from hook_init().
But, I would agree that more in-built flexibility would be great - and the suggestion I've provided is probably far from perfect.

TwoD’s picture

The jQuery version bundled with D7 automatically runs a couple of tests to determine how capable the visiting browser is. The results are stored as properties of jQuery.support, which makes for easier branching in your scrpts based on available [or working] features.

I personally prefer a couple of branches (if put in the right places) rather than dealing with two or more files. It's easy to forget syncing multiple files and I think aggregation works better with just one.

Feature detection and browser based decision making on the client is also a lot more reliable than what Drupal's serverside code could do in drupal_add_js().

attiks’s picture

I needed to add an separate js file only for IE browsers to support canvas, I was hoping drupal_add_js would allow this.

Only solution I found is

$forie = array(
  '#type' => 'markup',
  '#markup' => '<!--[if IE]><script language="javascript" type="text/javascript" src="..."></script><![endif]-->',

drupal_add_html_head($forie, 'mymodule');
hdcwebteam’s picture

Quick example of use in your theme's template.php (I hunted around for a while trying to find such an example):

function MYTHEME_preprocess_page(&$variables) {
	drupal_add_js(drupal_get_path('theme', 'MYTHEME') .'/mytheme.js', 'file');
dlumberg’s picture

If it's included on every page then it's better to include it in your theme's mytheme.info file as it gets added to the theme registry.

scripts[] = js/script.js
scripts[] = js/otherscript.js
AlonGoldberg’s picture

Drupal 7 supports a weight attribute which is easy to use, like so:

$path = drupal_get_path('module', 'MODULE_NAME_HERE');
drupal_add_js($path . '/SCRIPT_NAME_HERE.js', array('weight' => 1));

Tip: DO NOT rely on firebug to check if the order of your scripts have changed, as firebug automatically groups and re-orders the scripts for display!

What you want to do is view the actual source-code instead...

I wasted a couple of hours on this.
Hope this helps someone else to avoid the same.

GamlaSonn’s picture

As a Drupal newbie I thought it was logical to call drupal_add_js (or drupal_add_library) to add jQuery in my module, just to point out that the other javascript files used in the module depend on this library. I figured surely it couldn't hurt and in worst case scenario the library is already in the queue. Turns out that doing so somehow reset or messed up the queue order and I got a lot of "jQuery not defined" errors in firebug as jQuery was no longer being included before jquery.once.js and drupal.js (and more).

I didn't realize the queue system worked like this, surely should it not ignore subsequent calls to libraries already in the queue? I suppose this scenario must be relevant for other libraries as well.

Just beware:)

earwax’s picture

What they call a "javascript file" is not really a javascript file. It's that weird jQuery format. So if your external file has <script type="javascript/text" >...</script>, then forget it because it will not work. You will need to wrap it in that jQuery syntax. I spent a good 2 hours banging my head on this.

Taghipour’s picture

type="text/javascript" is correct.

EvanDonovan’s picture

If the file has script tags wrapped around it, it's not a pure Javascript file. The script tags show up only to wrap JS that is being included inline in HTML. Any Javascript external file should not include them - not just ones that use the jQuery syntax.

Sivaji’s picture

See hook_js_alter() to alter js files added using drupal_add_js()

emmajane’s picture

JohnAlbin also gave the useful comment in IRC about ordering the files:

When you use drupal_add_js() it defaults to "i'm a module adding a js" and module JS come before theme JS. So you'll need to set the group for the new JS file as well.

pankaj.winaim’s picture

Solution : For this We can call the theme for call the javascipt like :

$form['pager'] = array('#theme' => 'copy_import_pagination');

osman’s picture

These are very cool improvements over v6. Thank you guys! :-)

My favorite feature is in external resources you can use protocol-relative URLs:

For example, if you need to include a javascript to load webfonts:

drupal_add_js('//fast.fonts.com/jsapi/00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000.js', array(
  'type' => 'external',
  'scope' => 'header',
  'group' => JS_THEME,
  'every_page' => TRUE,
  'weight' => -1,

I am guessing drupal_add_css also works the same way, and also in .info files too. I'll check that out later.

MD3’s picture

So you've successfully loaded your JS file and it won't work? Make sure your code is wrapped in anonymous function that casts jQuery as $:

jQuery(document).ready(function ($) {

Make sure to read Working with JavaScript and jQuery

zorroposada’s picture

Sample code on how to add conditional scripts in html head section.
Scripts will apply to IE browsers except IE9.
Place the following code inside template.php inside hook_preprocess_html().

// IE  Conditional scripts
  $ie_scripts = array(
    path_to_theme() . '/js/script1.js',
    path_to_theme() . '/js/script2.js',
    path_to_theme() . '/js/script3.js',
  foreach ($ie_scripts as $key => $value) {
    $ie_script =  array(
      '#browsers' => array('IE' => 'lt IE 9', '!IE' => FALSE),
      '#tag' => 'script',
      '#attributes' => array(
        'type' => "text/javascript",
        'src' => $value,
      '#pre_render' => array('drupal_pre_render_conditional_comments'),
      '#weight' =>  999 + $key,
    drupal_add_html_head($ie_script, "mytheme$key");
mail@victorquinn.com’s picture

The above example for loading external libraries is great if you don't have any options for them:

<?php drupal_add_js('http://example.com/example.js', 'external'); ?>

But if you do, you'll want to add it to the options array with a flag of 'type'.

For example, to change the weight of an external library:

drupal_add_js('http://example.com/example.js', array(
    'weight' => '-1000',
    'type' => 'external',

This can be figured out from the code but hopefully this will help make it a bit easier for some folks.

lmeurs’s picture

I wanted to attach a JS setting to a block and couldn't figure out how to do this. Finally I found out that I had to use the data key in the array. The explanation is as follows:

In some cases, the first parameter ($data) is an array. Arrays can't be passed as keys in PHP, so we have to get $data from the value array.

  $block['content'] = array(
    '#attached' => array(
      'js' => array(
          'data' => array(
            'myModule' => array('mySettings' => 123),
        'type' => 'setting',

Source: http://deeson-online.co.uk/labs/how-use-formattached-javascript-setting-....

Fabianx’s picture

If you need a reg-exp to do the work for you, here it is:

s/drupal_add_js(\(.*\), array(\(.*\)));/$element['#attached']['js'][] = array('data' => \1, \2)/

Will automatically attach things to $element instead.

drclaw’s picture

This function has been removed in Drupa 8. Adding js to the page should now be done using the #attached property of a renderable array. @see Change Record https://drupal.org/node/2169605

cmcintosh’s picture

Oddly enough, https://www.drupal.org/node/2169605 states that drupal_add_js, and drupal_add_css are both dropped in favor of #attach. it is in fact the case that no js can be attached.

COBadger’s picture

The node to which you linked (https://www.drupal.org/node/2169605) refers to Drupal 8, not Drupal 7 - drupal_add_js is still very much a part of Drupal 7.

fen’s picture

You can build a site to DoD security standards, but if an external site hosting the JavaScript that you are are including gets hacked, then whatever access the intended JavaScript had to your data becomes available to the cracker. For example, the external JavaScript can send AJAX requests for data from your user and it can steal document.cookie. If you do include JavaScript, be certain that the links are secure (HTTPS) and your sources are trusted. As some people say, you are what you include.

ruvenshilpakar’s picture

drupal_add_js(drupal_get_path('module', 'mymodule') .'/myscript.js', 'file');

when i add this line in my custom module, it messes up site there are two issues seen:

1. When I add the line and flush the js and css cache in my site, the script codes work but I get an error
Notice: Undefined index: label in entity_views_field_definition() (line 191 of /srv/ceretreat/docroot/sites/all/modules/contrib/entity/views/entity.views.inc).
This messes up my rooms module data.

2. When i add the line and flush all cache I dont get the above error but the script doesnt work and jquery not defined issues or not a function issues are seen.

Does anyone have any idea on this? I am using Drupal 7


Gaurav_drupal’s picture

nirvana_u’s picture

I know it's already late for commenting, but in future if someone needs then sure it will help them.

In Drupal 7, we can add js to your page by adding below line in your code, in which you can also define type, scope (where actually you want to render your js file inside your HTML).
drupal_add_js(drupal_get_path('module', 'mymodule') .'/myscript.js', array('type' => 'file', 'scope' => 'footer'));


c7bamford’s picture

This is the default setup for a javascript behavior in drupal.

(function ($, Drupal, window, document) {
  Drupal.behaviors.MODULE = {
    attach(context, settings) {
        // Code goes here.

}(jQuery, Drupal, this, this.document));