1. 5.x includes/cache.inc
  2. 6.x includes/cache.inc
  3. 7.x includes/cache.inc

Functions and interfaces for cache handling.

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includes/cache.inc
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<?php

/**
 * @file
 * Functions and interfaces for cache handling.
 */

/**
 * Gets the cache object for a cache bin.
 *
 * By default, this returns an instance of the DrupalDatabaseCache class.
 * Classes implementing DrupalCacheInterface can register themselves both as a
 * default implementation and for specific bins.
 *
 * @param $bin
 *   The cache bin for which the cache object should be returned.
 *
 * @return DrupalCacheInterface
 *   The cache object associated with the specified bin.
 *
 * @see DrupalCacheInterface
 */
function _cache_get_object($bin) {

  // We do not use drupal_static() here because we do not want to change the
  // storage of a cache bin mid-request.
  static $cache_objects;
  if (!isset($cache_objects[$bin])) {
    $class = variable_get('cache_class_' . $bin);
    if (!isset($class)) {
      $class = variable_get('cache_default_class', 'DrupalDatabaseCache');
    }
    $cache_objects[$bin] = new $class($bin);
  }
  return $cache_objects[$bin];
}

/**
 * Returns data from the persistent cache.
 *
 * Data may be stored as either plain text or as serialized data. cache_get
 * will automatically return unserialized objects and arrays.
 *
 * @param $cid
 *   The cache ID of the data to retrieve.
 * @param $bin
 *   The cache bin to store the data in. Valid core values are 'cache_block',
 *   'cache_bootstrap', 'cache_field', 'cache_filter', 'cache_form',
 *   'cache_menu', 'cache_page', 'cache_path', 'cache_update' or 'cache' for
 *   the default cache.
 *
 * @return
 *   The cache or FALSE on failure.
 *
 * @see cache_set()
 */
function cache_get($cid, $bin = 'cache') {
  return _cache_get_object($bin)
    ->get($cid);
}

/**
 * Returns data from the persistent cache when given an array of cache IDs.
 *
 * @param $cids
 *   An array of cache IDs for the data to retrieve. This is passed by
 *   reference, and will have the IDs successfully returned from cache removed.
 * @param $bin
 *   The cache bin where the data is stored.
 *
 * @return
 *   An array of the items successfully returned from cache indexed by cid.
 */
function cache_get_multiple(array &$cids, $bin = 'cache') {
  return _cache_get_object($bin)
    ->getMultiple($cids);
}

/**
 * Stores data in the persistent cache.
 *
 * The persistent cache is split up into several cache bins. In the default
 * cache implementation, each cache bin corresponds to a database table by the
 * same name. Other implementations might want to store several bins in data
 * structures that get flushed together. While it is not a problem for most
 * cache bins if the entries in them are flushed before their expire time, some
 * might break functionality or are extremely expensive to recalculate. The
 * other bins are expired automatically by core. Contributed modules can add
 * additional bins and get them expired automatically by implementing
 * hook_flush_caches().
 *
 * The reasons for having several bins are as follows:
 * - Smaller bins mean smaller database tables and allow for faster selects and
 *   inserts.
 * - We try to put fast changing cache items and rather static ones into
 *   different bins. The effect is that only the fast changing bins will need a
 *   lot of writes to disk. The more static bins will also be better cacheable
 *   with MySQL's query cache.
 *
 * @param $cid
 *   The cache ID of the data to store.
 * @param $data
 *   The data to store in the cache. Complex data types will be automatically
 *   serialized before insertion. Strings will be stored as plain text and are
 *   not serialized. Some storage engines only allow objects up to a maximum of
 *   1MB in size to be stored by default. When caching large arrays or similar,
 *   take care to ensure $data does not exceed this size.
 * @param $bin
 *   (optional) The cache bin to store the data in. Valid core values are:
 *   - cache: (default) Generic cache storage bin (used for theme registry,
 *     locale date, list of simpletest tests, etc.).
 *   - cache_block: Stores the content of various blocks.
 *   - cache_bootstrap: Stores the class registry, the system list of modules,
 *     the list of which modules implement which hooks, and the Drupal variable
 *     list.
 *   - cache_field: Stores the field data belonging to a given object.
 *   - cache_filter: Stores filtered pieces of content.
 *   - cache_form: Stores multistep forms. Flushing this bin means that some
 *     forms displayed to users lose their state and the data already submitted
 *     to them. This bin should not be flushed before its expired time.
 *   - cache_menu: Stores the structure of visible navigation menus per page.
 *   - cache_page: Stores generated pages for anonymous users. It is flushed
 *     very often, whenever a page changes, at least for every node and comment
 *     submission. This is the only bin affected by the page cache setting on
 *     the administrator panel.
 *   - cache_path: Stores the system paths that have an alias.
 * @param $expire
 *   (optional) Controls the maximum lifetime of this cache entry. Note that
 *   caches might be subject to clearing at any time, so this setting does not
 *   guarantee a minimum lifetime. With this in mind, the cache should not be
 *   used for data that must be kept during a cache clear, like sessions.
 *
 *   Use one of the following values:
 *   - CACHE_PERMANENT: Indicates that the item should never be removed unless
 *     explicitly told to using cache_clear_all() with a cache ID.
 *   - CACHE_TEMPORARY: Indicates that the item should be removed at the next
 *     general cache wipe.
 *   - A Unix timestamp: Indicates that the item should be kept at least until
 *     the given time, after which it behaves like CACHE_TEMPORARY.
 *
 * @see _update_cache_set()
 * @see cache_get()
 */
function cache_set($cid, $data, $bin = 'cache', $expire = CACHE_PERMANENT) {
  return _cache_get_object($bin)
    ->set($cid, $data, $expire);
}

/**
 * Expires data from the cache.
 *
 * If called with the arguments $cid and $bin set to NULL or omitted, then
 * expirable entries will be cleared from the cache_page and cache_block bins,
 * and the $wildcard argument is ignored.
 *
 * @param $cid
 *   If set, the cache ID or an array of cache IDs. Otherwise, all cache entries
 *   that can expire are deleted. The $wildcard argument will be ignored if set
 *   to NULL.
 * @param $bin
 *   If set, the cache bin to delete from. Mandatory argument if $cid is set.
 * @param $wildcard
 *   If TRUE, the $cid argument must contain a string value and cache IDs
 *   starting with $cid are deleted in addition to the exact cache ID specified
 *   by $cid. If $wildcard is TRUE and $cid is '*', the entire cache is emptied.
 */
function cache_clear_all($cid = NULL, $bin = NULL, $wildcard = FALSE) {
  if (!isset($cid) && !isset($bin)) {

    // Clear the block cache first, so stale data will
    // not end up in the page cache.
    if (module_exists('block')) {
      cache_clear_all(NULL, 'cache_block');
    }
    cache_clear_all(NULL, 'cache_page');
    return;
  }
  return _cache_get_object($bin)
    ->clear($cid, $wildcard);
}

/**
 * Checks if a cache bin is empty.
 *
 * A cache bin is considered empty if it does not contain any valid data for any
 * cache ID.
 *
 * @param $bin
 *   The cache bin to check.
 *
 * @return
 *   TRUE if the cache bin specified is empty.
 */
function cache_is_empty($bin) {
  return _cache_get_object($bin)
    ->isEmpty();
}

/**
 * Defines an interface for cache implementations.
 *
 * All cache implementations have to implement this interface.
 * DrupalDatabaseCache provides the default implementation, which can be
 * consulted as an example.
 *
 * To make Drupal use your implementation for a certain cache bin, you have to
 * set a variable with the name of the cache bin as its key and the name of
 * your class as its value. For example, if your implementation of
 * DrupalCacheInterface was called MyCustomCache, the following line would make
 * Drupal use it for the 'cache_page' bin:
 * @code
 *  variable_set('cache_class_cache_page', 'MyCustomCache');
 * @endcode
 *
 * Additionally, you can register your cache implementation to be used by
 * default for all cache bins by setting the variable 'cache_default_class' to
 * the name of your implementation of the DrupalCacheInterface, e.g.
 * @code
 *  variable_set('cache_default_class', 'MyCustomCache');
 * @endcode
 *
 * To implement a completely custom cache bin, use the same variable format:
 * @code
 *  variable_set('cache_class_custom_bin', 'MyCustomCache');
 * @endcode
 * To access your custom cache bin, specify the name of the bin when storing
 * or retrieving cached data:
 * @code
 *  cache_set($cid, $data, 'custom_bin', $expire);
 *  cache_get($cid, 'custom_bin');
 * @endcode
 *
 * @see _cache_get_object()
 * @see DrupalDatabaseCache
 */
interface DrupalCacheInterface {

  /**
   * Returns data from the persistent cache.
   *
   * Data may be stored as either plain text or as serialized data. cache_get()
   * will automatically return unserialized objects and arrays.
   *
   * @param $cid
   *   The cache ID of the data to retrieve.
   *
   * @return
   *   The cache or FALSE on failure.
   */
  function get($cid);

  /**
   * Returns data from the persistent cache when given an array of cache IDs.
   *
   * @param $cids
   *   An array of cache IDs for the data to retrieve. This is passed by
   *   reference, and will have the IDs successfully returned from cache
   *   removed.
   *
   * @return
   *   An array of the items successfully returned from cache indexed by cid.
   */
  function getMultiple(&$cids);

  /**
   * Stores data in the persistent cache.
   *
   * @param $cid
   *   The cache ID of the data to store.
   * @param $data
   *   The data to store in the cache. Complex data types will be automatically
   *   serialized before insertion. Strings will be stored as plain text and not
   *   serialized. Some storage engines only allow objects up to a maximum of
   *   1MB in size to be stored by default. When caching large arrays or
   *   similar, take care to ensure $data does not exceed this size.
   * @param $expire
   *   (optional) Controls the maximum lifetime of this cache entry. Note that
   *   caches might be subject to clearing at any time, so this setting does not
   *   guarantee a minimum lifetime. With this in mind, the cache should not be
   *   used for data that must be kept during a cache clear, like sessions.
   *
   *   Use one of the following values:
   *   - CACHE_PERMANENT: Indicates that the item should never be removed unless
   *     explicitly told to using cache_clear_all() with a cache ID.
   *   - CACHE_TEMPORARY: Indicates that the item should be removed at the next
   *     general cache wipe.
   *   - A Unix timestamp: Indicates that the item should be kept at least until
   *     the given time, after which it behaves like CACHE_TEMPORARY.
   */
  function set($cid, $data, $expire = CACHE_PERMANENT);

  /**
   * Expires data from the cache.
   *
   * If called without arguments, expirable entries will be cleared from the
   * cache_page and cache_block bins.
   *
   * @param $cid
   *   If set, the cache ID or an array of cache IDs. Otherwise, all cache
   *   entries that can expire are deleted. The $wildcard argument will be
   *   ignored if set to NULL.
   * @param $wildcard
   *   If TRUE, the $cid argument must contain a string value and cache IDs
   *   starting with $cid are deleted in addition to the exact cache ID
   *   specified by $cid. If $wildcard is TRUE and $cid is '*', the entire
   *   cache is emptied.
   */
  function clear($cid = NULL, $wildcard = FALSE);

  /**
   * Checks if a cache bin is empty.
   *
   * A cache bin is considered empty if it does not contain any valid data for
   * any cache ID.
   *
   * @return
   *   TRUE if the cache bin specified is empty.
   */
  function isEmpty();

}

/**
 * Defines a default cache implementation.
 *
 * This is Drupal's default cache implementation. It uses the database to store
 * cached data. Each cache bin corresponds to a database table by the same name.
 */
class DrupalDatabaseCache implements DrupalCacheInterface {
  protected $bin;

  /**
   * Constructs a DrupalDatabaseCache object.
   *
   * @param $bin
   *   The cache bin for which the object is created.
   */
  function __construct($bin) {
    $this->bin = $bin;
  }

  /**
   * Implements DrupalCacheInterface::get().
   */
  function get($cid) {
    $cids = array(
      $cid,
    );
    $cache = $this
      ->getMultiple($cids);
    return reset($cache);
  }

  /**
   * Implements DrupalCacheInterface::getMultiple().
   */
  function getMultiple(&$cids) {
    try {

      // Garbage collection necessary when enforcing a minimum cache lifetime.
      $this
        ->garbageCollection($this->bin);

      // When serving cached pages, the overhead of using db_select() was found
      // to add around 30% overhead to the request. Since $this->bin is a
      // variable, this means the call to db_query() here uses a concatenated
      // string. This is highly discouraged under any other circumstances, and
      // is used here only due to the performance overhead we would incur
      // otherwise. When serving an uncached page, the overhead of using
      // db_select() is a much smaller proportion of the request.
      $result = db_query('SELECT cid, data, created, expire, serialized FROM {' . db_escape_table($this->bin) . '} WHERE cid IN (:cids)', array(
        ':cids' => $cids,
      ));
      $cache = array();
      foreach ($result as $item) {
        $item = $this
          ->prepareItem($item);
        if ($item) {
          $cache[$item->cid] = $item;
        }
      }
      $cids = array_diff($cids, array_keys($cache));
      return $cache;
    } catch (Exception $e) {

      // If the database is never going to be available, cache requests should
      // return FALSE in order to allow exception handling to occur.
      return array();
    }
  }

  /**
   * Garbage collection for get() and getMultiple().
   *
   * @param $bin
   *   The bin being requested.
   */
  protected function garbageCollection() {
    $cache_lifetime = variable_get('cache_lifetime', 0);

    // Clean-up the per-user cache expiration session data, so that the session
    // handler can properly clean-up the session data for anonymous users.
    if (isset($_SESSION['cache_expiration'])) {
      $expire = REQUEST_TIME - $cache_lifetime;
      foreach ($_SESSION['cache_expiration'] as $bin => $timestamp) {
        if ($timestamp < $expire) {
          unset($_SESSION['cache_expiration'][$bin]);
        }
      }
      if (!$_SESSION['cache_expiration']) {
        unset($_SESSION['cache_expiration']);
      }
    }

    // Garbage collection of temporary items is only necessary when enforcing
    // a minimum cache lifetime.
    if (!$cache_lifetime) {
      return;
    }

    // When cache lifetime is in force, avoid running garbage collection too
    // often since this will remove temporary cache items indiscriminately.
    $cache_flush = variable_get('cache_flush_' . $this->bin, 0);
    if ($cache_flush && $cache_flush + $cache_lifetime <= REQUEST_TIME) {

      // Reset the variable immediately to prevent a meltdown in heavy load situations.
      variable_set('cache_flush_' . $this->bin, 0);

      // Time to flush old cache data
      db_delete($this->bin)
        ->condition('expire', CACHE_PERMANENT, '<>')
        ->condition('expire', $cache_flush, '<=')
        ->execute();
    }
  }

  /**
   * Prepares a cached item.
   *
   * Checks that items are either permanent or did not expire, and unserializes
   * data as appropriate.
   *
   * @param $cache
   *   An item loaded from cache_get() or cache_get_multiple().
   *
   * @return
   *   The item with data unserialized as appropriate or FALSE if there is no
   *   valid item to load.
   */
  protected function prepareItem($cache) {
    global $user;
    if (!isset($cache->data)) {
      return FALSE;
    }

    // If the cached data is temporary and subject to a per-user minimum
    // lifetime, compare the cache entry timestamp with the user session
    // cache_expiration timestamp. If the cache entry is too old, ignore it.
    if ($cache->expire != CACHE_PERMANENT && variable_get('cache_lifetime', 0) && isset($_SESSION['cache_expiration'][$this->bin]) && $_SESSION['cache_expiration'][$this->bin] > $cache->created) {

      // Ignore cache data that is too old and thus not valid for this user.
      return FALSE;
    }

    // If the data is permanent or not subject to a minimum cache lifetime,
    // unserialize and return the cached data.
    if ($cache->serialized) {
      $cache->data = unserialize($cache->data);
    }
    return $cache;
  }

  /**
   * Implements DrupalCacheInterface::set().
   */
  function set($cid, $data, $expire = CACHE_PERMANENT) {
    $fields = array(
      'serialized' => 0,
      'created' => REQUEST_TIME,
      'expire' => $expire,
    );
    if (!is_string($data)) {
      $fields['data'] = serialize($data);
      $fields['serialized'] = 1;
    }
    else {
      $fields['data'] = $data;
      $fields['serialized'] = 0;
    }
    try {
      db_merge($this->bin)
        ->key(array(
        'cid' => $cid,
      ))
        ->fields($fields)
        ->execute();
    } catch (Exception $e) {

      // The database may not be available, so we'll ignore cache_set requests.
    }
  }

  /**
   * Implements DrupalCacheInterface::clear().
   */
  function clear($cid = NULL, $wildcard = FALSE) {
    global $user;
    if (empty($cid)) {
      if (variable_get('cache_lifetime', 0)) {

        // We store the time in the current user's session. We then simulate
        // that the cache was flushed for this user by not returning cached
        // data that was cached before the timestamp.
        $_SESSION['cache_expiration'][$this->bin] = REQUEST_TIME;
        $cache_flush = variable_get('cache_flush_' . $this->bin, 0);
        if ($cache_flush == 0) {

          // This is the first request to clear the cache, start a timer.
          variable_set('cache_flush_' . $this->bin, REQUEST_TIME);
        }
        elseif (REQUEST_TIME > $cache_flush + variable_get('cache_lifetime', 0)) {

          // Clear the cache for everyone, cache_lifetime seconds have
          // passed since the first request to clear the cache.
          db_delete($this->bin)
            ->condition('expire', CACHE_PERMANENT, '<>')
            ->condition('expire', REQUEST_TIME, '<')
            ->execute();
          variable_set('cache_flush_' . $this->bin, 0);
        }
      }
      else {

        // No minimum cache lifetime, flush all temporary cache entries now.
        db_delete($this->bin)
          ->condition('expire', CACHE_PERMANENT, '<>')
          ->condition('expire', REQUEST_TIME, '<')
          ->execute();
      }
    }
    else {
      if ($wildcard) {
        if ($cid == '*') {

          // Check if $this->bin is a cache table before truncating. Other
          // cache_clear_all() operations throw a PDO error in this situation,
          // so we don't need to verify them first. This ensures that non-cache
          // tables cannot be truncated accidentally.
          if ($this
            ->isValidBin()) {
            db_truncate($this->bin)
              ->execute();
          }
          else {
            throw new Exception(t('Invalid or missing cache bin specified: %bin', array(
              '%bin' => $this->bin,
            )));
          }
        }
        else {
          db_delete($this->bin)
            ->condition('cid', db_like($cid) . '%', 'LIKE')
            ->execute();
        }
      }
      elseif (is_array($cid)) {

        // Delete in chunks when a large array is passed.
        do {
          db_delete($this->bin)
            ->condition('cid', array_splice($cid, 0, 1000), 'IN')
            ->execute();
        } while (count($cid));
      }
      else {
        db_delete($this->bin)
          ->condition('cid', $cid)
          ->execute();
      }
    }
  }

  /**
   * Implements DrupalCacheInterface::isEmpty().
   */
  function isEmpty() {
    $this
      ->garbageCollection();
    $query = db_select($this->bin);
    $query
      ->addExpression('1');
    $result = $query
      ->range(0, 1)
      ->execute()
      ->fetchField();
    return empty($result);
  }

  /**
   * Checks if $this->bin represents a valid cache table.
   *
   * This check is required to ensure that non-cache tables are not truncated
   * accidentally when calling cache_clear_all().
   *
   * @return boolean
   */
  function isValidBin() {
    if ($this->bin == 'cache' || substr($this->bin, 0, 6) == 'cache_') {

      // Skip schema check for bins with standard table names.
      return TRUE;
    }

    // These fields are required for any cache table.
    $fields = array(
      'cid',
      'data',
      'expire',
      'created',
      'serialized',
    );

    // Load the table schema.
    $schema = drupal_get_schema($this->bin);

    // Confirm that all fields are present.
    return isset($schema['fields']) && !array_diff($fields, array_keys($schema['fields']));
  }

}

Functions

Namesort descending Description
cache_clear_all Expires data from the cache.
cache_get Returns data from the persistent cache.
cache_get_multiple Returns data from the persistent cache when given an array of cache IDs.
cache_is_empty Checks if a cache bin is empty.
cache_set Stores data in the persistent cache.
_cache_get_object Gets the cache object for a cache bin.

Classes

Namesort descending Description
DrupalDatabaseCache Defines a default cache implementation.

Interfaces

Namesort descending Description
DrupalCacheInterface Defines an interface for cache implementations.